Behind the Ranges. Fraser of Lisuland S.W. China

James Outram Fraser [1886–1938]
 James Outram Fraser [1886–1938]
James Outram Fraser [1886–1938] was an English missionary who divided his time between China and Burma, working amongst the Lisu people who lives along the border. He worked on translating the New Testament in the Lisu language and established churches that were both funded and led by the Lisu converts.

My thanks to OMF International (UK) for their permission to place this in-copyright book on-line. It may be downloaded and used for free educational purposes, but may not be sold for profit without written permission from the copyrgiht holder. My thanks to Book Aid for making a copy available for digtisation.

Mrs Howard Taylor (aka. Mary Geraldine Guinness [1865-1949], Behind the Ranges. Fraser of Lisuland S.W. China. London & Redhill: Lutterworth Press & China Inland Mission, n.d. Hbk. pp.253. [Click to visit the download page]


  • Foreword
  1. Beginnings
  2. Young Life
  3. The Real Issue
  4. Mountain Men
  5. Missionary in Charge
  6. Banished to Burma
  7. Lisuland Again
  8. A Challenge
  9. A Decision
  10. Powers of Darkness
  11. A Fruitful Interlude
  12. The Prayer of Faith
  13. The Sword-Ladder Festival
  14. ‘Who Teacheth Like Him ?’
  15. The Letter Never Written
  16. ‘I Sent You To Reap’
  17. Love and Patience
  18. Blood of His Own
  19. A New Call
  20. ‘Good Ground’
  21. ‘A Hundredfold’
  22. The End in View
  23. Love’s Endurance
  24. Love’s Reward
  25. Marriage and Wider Ministry
  26. Fulfilment and Translation
  • Farewell

Pastor Hsi. Confucian Scholar and Christian by Geraldine Taylor

Pastor Hsi (Xi Shengmo)
Pastor Hsi (Xi Shengmo). Source: Wikipedia

Thanks largely to this book, there is more written about Pastor Hsi (Xi Shengmo) than any other 19th protestant Chinese Christian.  Hsi is notable for the way that he, rather than western missionaries, led the work of establishing churches and clinics for opium users in the areas where he worked.

My thanks to OMF International-UK for their permission to digitise and host this important book. It may be downloaded and used for free educational purposes, but not sold for profit without the explicit written permission of the copyright holder.

Geraldine Taylor [1865-1949], Pastor Hsi: Confucian Scholar and Christian, 23rd edn. London: China Inland Mission, 1900. Hbk. pp.293. [Click to visit the download page]


  • Editorial Note
  • Foreword
  • Introduction
  • Extracts from the Introduction written for the first edition by D.E. Hoste
  1. The Home of His Childhood
  2. Wedding an Unknown Bride
  3. Winning a Reputation
  4. The Swift Descent
  5. Dark Days in Shansi
  6. Light at Last
  7. Fishers of Men
  8. Drawing in the Net
  9. The Living Christ
  10. Stronger than All the Powers of the Enemy
  11. Called to Life Service
  12. The Great Change
  13. “Conqueror of Demons”
  14. Early Success and Failure
  15. Growing in Grace
  16. Starving the Village Idols
  17. Under-Shepherds: A Problem
  18. Light on the Problem
  19. Finding His Life-Work
  20. A Visit to the Capital
  21. How the Work Spread
  22. How God Provided
  23. A Fresh Advance
  24. Reinforcements
  25. Not Against Flesh and Blood
  26. For the Work of the Ministry
  27. West of the River
  28. A Winter’s Work at Hungtung
  29. Through Fire and Through Water
  30. A Wealthy Place
  31. The Burden and Heat of the Day
  32. The Refuges as Mission Stations
  33. The Middle Eden
  34. Ready to Depart
  35. Higher Service
  • Hymn by Pastor Hsi

Twelve Mighty Missionaries by Esthme Ethelind Enock [1874-1947]

Esthme Ethelind Enock [1874-1947], Twelve Mighty MissionariesEsthme Enock’s biographical sketches of 12 famous missionaries has just entered the public domain. This copy was kindly provided by Book Aid for digitisation.

In the table of contents below I have linked to the bibligraphy pages on, where you will find further material on each missionary.

Esthme Ethelind Enock [1874-1947], Twelve Mighty Missionaries. London: Pickering & Inglis, Ltd., 1936. Hbk. pp.95. [Click to visit the download page]


  1. Pastor Hsi, China
  2. James Chalmers, New Guinea
  3. Alexander Mackay, Uganda
  4. Anthony Norris Groves, India
  5. Alexander Duff, India
  6. John Williams, Erromanga
  7. Samuel Marsden, Maoriland
  8. Samuel Pollard, China
  9. Hudson Taylor, China
  10. C.T. Studd, Central Africa
  11. Dan Crawford, Central Africa
  12. Dr Richard Williams, Tierra Del Fuego

Chapter 1. Pastor Hsi, China

The exact date of Pastor Hsi’s birthday does not seem to be recorded, but he was born probably in the Autumn of 1836. Till he was seven years old the little Hsi lived the usual free life of the son of a Chinese scholar, and was encouraged in every way to be overbearing and self-willed. Then he was sent to school, a school where a shrine of Confucius occupied the place of honour. Here the boy begins the studies which, it is hoped, will make him a “Princely Man.”

But, favourable though circumstances are, they do not satisfy the heart of this boy. At the early age of eight years, as he wandered through the incense-filled Temple and gazed at the hideous idols and vivid representations of punishments and terrors beyond the grave, he would ask himself, what was the use of living. “Men find no good, and in the end—?” he said to himself….

Griffith John: A Voice from China

Griffith John [1831-1912], A Voice From China
Griffith John. Image source – Wikipdia.
Griffith John [1831-1912], having been prevented by illness from returning home from China, sent instead this collection of his writings in order to stir others to new missionary endeavours.

My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of this book for digitisation. This title is in the public domain.

Griffith John [1831-1912], A Voice From China. London: James Clarke & Co., 1917. Hbk. pp.271. [Click to visit the download page]


  • Preface
  1. Then and Now
  2. The Supreme Motive in Christian Missions
  3. The Ideal Christian Life
  4. Why Do I Believe in Missions
  5. The Message
  6. The Missionary
  7. The Tract in China
  8. The Bible in China
  9. The Source of Power
  10. The Gospel in Hupeh
  11. The Gospel in Hunan
  12. Fear Not

Chapter 1: Then and Now

We have just reached the close of the first hundred years of Protestant missions in China, and I wish to call attention to the contrast between the present and the past. If we compare the state of things to-day with the state of things existing in China in Dr. Morrison’s day, we shall be able to some extent to realise how great is the work which has been wrought of God during this period in that great empire. We may also notice that the progress of Christian missions in China is but typical of the advance that has been made throughout the world in the same period. When Dr. Morrison went to China the country was, both legally and practically, closed to the missionary and to the Gospel. In those days it was a crime for a Chinese to teach, or for a foreigner to learn, the language…

Click here for more material on Griffith John.

Robert Morrison, Pioneer of Missions to China

William John Townsend [1835-1915], Robert Morrison, The Pioneer of Chinese MissionsRobert Morrison (1782-1834) was a Presbyterian missionary to China. He is notable for his translation and subsequent widespread distribution of a Chinese Bible and for his Chinese Dictionary. He is often called the “Father of Anglo-Chinese Literature”. My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of this book for digitisation. This title is in the public domain.

William John Townsend [1835-1915], Robert Morrison, The Pioneer of Chinese Missions. London: Pickering & Inglis, [n.d.]. Hbk. pp.184. [Click to visit the download page]


  • Preface
  1. Introductory
  2. Childhood and Youth
  3. Preparation For the Great Work
  4. Initial Life and Work in China
  5. Persecution – Dr. Milne
  6. Visit To Peking – Malacca College
  7. Bible Completed – Death of Milne
  8. Work in England – Return To China
  9. Renewed Labour – Closing Scenes
  10. What He Was – What He Did

Chapter 1: Introductory

“O rock, rock, when wilt thou open? ” exclaimed the apostolic Xavier, as he lay burning with fever on an island off the coast of China in 1552. Similar ardent longings have stirred the souls of consecrated Christian workers during many periods of the Church’s history. But China remained a sealed rock to Christian effort until about the middle of the last century. No one can be surprised that it has attracted to itself a variety of interest, and especially that it should enkindle the enthusiasm of the Christian missionary. The tenacious life which has prolonged itself for upwards of four thousand years, and has survived the tempests of time-which have carried down into utter destruction the great empires of antiquity, Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Rome-stamps the Chinese as a peculiar people, and invests them with a halo of romance well calculated to fire the imagination of the adventurous spirit….

Christianity in the Eastern Conflicts by William Paton

William Paton [1886-1943], Christianity in the Eastern ConflictsIn preparation for the 1938 Oxford Conference on Christian Missions, William Paton the Secretary of International Missionary Council, embarked on a tour of Asia and the Near East. This volume represents a summary of his tour and its findings. My thanks to the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for providing a copy of this book for digitisation.

William Paton [1886-1943], Christianity in the Eastern Conflicts. A Study of Christianity, Nationalism and Communism in Asia. London: Edinburgh House Press, 1937. Hbk. pp.224. [Click to visit the download page]


  • Author’s Preface
  • Introduction
  1. Japan
  2. China
  3. India
  4. The Near East
  5. The Gospel and the New Age
  6. Church, Community and State
  7. The Life and Witness of the Church
  8. The Church and the Social Order
  9. Conclusion
  • Book List
  • Index


This book is based chiefly upon the experiences of a journey which it was my good fortune and privilege to undertake during the autumn, winter and spring of 1935-6. Travelling from England through America and Canada, during seven months I visited Japan, Korea, Manchuria, China, the Straits Settlements, Java, India, Egypt and Palestine. The principal object with which this journey was undertaken was to discuss with representative Christians of the indigenous Churches and with missionaries in the different countries the plans that had been outlined for holding in the Far East, in the autumn of 1938, a world meeting of the International Missionary Council, in succession to those held in 1910 at Edinburgh and in 1928 at Jerusalem. These plans were made in outline at the meeting of the Committee of the Council in Northfield, Massachusetts, and I left the meeting to go directly to Japan, there to begin an intensely interesting process of testing, in innumerable discussions, whether the themes which the Council had chosen as the subject-matter of its proposed World meeting were in fact the most important…

Missions and Modern History by Robert E. Speer

Robert E. Speer, Missions and Modern HistoryRobert E. Speer sets out his threefold purpose in writing this history of 19th Century missions:

  • To correct distortions of the facts;
  • To demonstrate the significance of missions in world events;
  • To inform the reading public of important recent events.

My thanks to the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for making these volumes available for digitisation. These books are in the public domain.

Robert E. Speer, Missions and Modern History. A Study of the Missionary Aspects of Some Great Movements of the Nineteenth Century, 2 Vols. New York: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1904. Hbk. pp. 714. [Click here to visit the download page]


  • Preface
  1. The Tai-Ping Rebellion
  2. The Indian Mutiny
  3. The Religion of the Bab
  4. The Emancipation of Latin America
  5. The Development of Africa
  6. The Reform Movement in Hinduism 

    Second Volume 

  7. The Tong Hak Insurrection
  8. The Transformation of Japan
  9. The Armenian Massacres
  10. The Going of the Spaniard
  11. The Boxer Uprising
  12. The Coming of the Slav
  13. Missions and the World Movement
  • Index

Chapter 13: Missions and the World-Movement

Of the twelve great movements which have been considered, all but two have been related to Asia. We are often told that Asia is the immovable continent, that she is what she has been and that she will remain what she is, that “some strange fiat of arrest, probably due to mental exhaustion has condemned the brown men and the yellow men to eternal reproduction of old ideas,” that there notion and institution have hardened into permanency and that the continent must be regarded as alien to great moral or intellectual movements and separate from the stirrings of life that work ceaseless change in the West. How is it possible to reconcile such a view with the facts which have passed before us? These Asiatic nations are alive. The stock is not exhausted. “The theory that China’s dependence is due to the fact that she has long since reached maturity and has outlived the natural term of national existence does not hold good….

Snapshot of China and Chinese Missions from 1907

Marshall Broomhall [1866-1937], The Chinese Empire. A General and Missionary Survey.This is an extremely detailed province-by-province survey of Chinese life and the progress of Christian missions there up to 1907. It is written by multiple authors who each had personal experience of the region they wrote about.

This title is in the public domain. My thanks to Redcliffe College for making a copy available for digitisation.

Marshall Broomhall [1866-1937], The Chinese Empire. A General and Missionary Survey. London: Morgan & Scott, [1907]. Hbk. pp.472. [Click to visit the download page]


  • Preface by The Rt. Hon. Sir Ernest Satow, G.C.M.G
  • Editor’s Preface
  • Introduction by Marshall Broomhall. Geography; Early Nestorian Missions; First Roman Catholic Effort; Second Roman Catholic Effort. Protestant Missions: Period of Preparation, 1807-1842; Period of the Ports, 1842-1860; Period of Penetration, 1860-1877; Period of Progress, Persecution, and Prosperity, 1878-1907.
  • The Province of Kwagtung by The Rev. J. Campbell Gibson, M.A., D.D. English Presbyterian Mission. Arrived In China 1874.
  • The Province of Fukien by The Rev. Llewellyn Lloyd, Church Missionary Society. Arrived In China 1876.
  • The Island of Formosa by The Rev. Thomas Barclay, M.A., English Presbyterian. Mission. Arrived In China 1874.
  • The Province of Chekiang by the Ven. Archdeacon A. E. Moule, B.D., Church Missionary Society. Arrived In China 1861.
  • The Province of Kiangsu by Rev. John Darroch, Translator For Shansi Imperial University. Arrived In China 1887.
  • The Province of Shantung by Mr. C. F. Hogg. Arrived In China 1884.
  • The Province of Chihli by The Rev. Thomas Bryson, London Missionary Society. Arrived In China 1866.
  • The Province of Hupeh by The Rev. Arnold Foster, B.A., London Missionary Society. Arrived In China 1871.
  • The Province of Kiangsi By Mr. Archibald Orr-Ewing, China Inland Mission. Arrived In China 1886.
  • The Province of Anhwei by The Rev. J. J. Coulthard, China Inland Mission. Arrived In China 1879.
  • The Province of Honan by G. Whitfield Guinness, B.A., M.B., China Inland Mission. Arrived In China 1897.
  • The Province of Hunan By Mr. A. H. Harris, Late Acting Commissioner of Customs, Changsha. Arrived In China 1883.
  • The Province of Kansu by Marshall Broomhall, In China 1890-1899.
  • The Province of Shensi by Marshall Broomhall, In China 1890-1899.
  • The Province of Shansi by Mr. Albert Lutley, China Inland Mission, Arrived In China 1887,
  • The Province of Szechwan by Mr. Jushu-A Vale, China Inland Mission. Arrived In China. 1887.
  • The Province of Yunnan by The Rev. John M’carthy, China Inland Mission. Arrived In China 1867.
  • The Province of Kweichow by The Rev. Samuel Clarke, China Inland Mission. Arrived In China 1878.
  • The Province of Kwangsi by The Rev. Louis Byrde, B.A., Church Missionary Society. Arrived In China 1898.
  • The Province of Sinkiang by Mr. George Hunter, China Inland Mission. Arrived In China 1889.
  • Manchuria by The Rev. J. W. Inglis, M.A., United Free Church of Scotland. Arrived In Manchuria in 1890.
  • Tibet by Mr. Cecil Polhill, China Inland Mission. Arrived In China 1885.
  • Mongolia by Marshall Broomhall. And Supplementary Section on Work For the Mongols At Kalgan, By Rev. J. H. Roberts, American Board of C.F.M. Arrived In China 1877.
  • The Bible in the Chinese Empire by Marshall Broomhall; Based on Material Supplied by the British and Foreign Bible Society.
  • Appendices
    I. Philology
    II. The Jews in China
    Ill. Introduction of Christianity Into China
    IV. Biographical Outlines
  • Indices
    I. Chronological
    II. General
    III. Missionary Societies
  • IV. Biographical or Personal
    V. Topographical

By My Spirit by Jonathan Goforth

By My Spirit by Jonathan Goforth 1Jonathan Goforth [1859-1936] and his wife Rosalind [1864-1942] were Canadian Presbyterian Missionaries who were encouraged to serve in China by the writings of Hudson Taylor. Jonathan was wounded with a sword during the Boxer Uprising and the couple returned briefly to Canada on furlough in 1900.

After their return to Henan in 1901, Jonathan Goforth felt increasingly restless. In 1904 and 1905 he was inspired by news of the great Welsh revival and read Charles Finney’s “Lectures on Revivals”. In 1907, circumstances brought him to witness firsthand the stirring Korean revival (“When the Spirit’s Fire Swept Korea” [1943] represents his response). As Goforth returned to China through Manchuria, congregations invited him back in early 1908. During this extended visit there the “Manchurian revival” broke out. It was the first such revival to gain nationwide publicity in China as well as international repute. The revival transformed Goforth’s life and ministry; from then on he was primarily an evangelist and revivalist, not a settled missionary. He also became one of the best known of all China missionaries, admired by many, but criticized by some for “emotionalism.” [Wikipedia]

As the Wikipedia article notes: “Jonathan Goforth became the foremost missionary revivalist in early 20th-century China and helped to establish revivalism as a major element in Protestant China missions.” This book sets out to explain his thinking on the subject.

Jonathan Goforth [1859-1936], By My Spirit. London & Edinburgh: Marshall, Morgan & Scott, [1929]. Hbk. pp.189. [Click to visit the downlaod page].

This title is in the public domain. My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy for digitisation.


  • Preface
  1. Introductory
  2. A Season of Intensive Preparation
  3. The Beginning of fhe Movement in Manchuria
  4. Further Triumphs of the Spirit in Manchuria
  5. Repentance and Confession in Shansi
  6. An Outpouring of Divine Blessing Upon Chantehfu
  7. The Lord’s Presence and Power in the Chantehfu Out-Stations
  8. Evil Spirits Defeated and Cast Out in Honan
  9. Hindrances Swept Away When the Spirit Worked in Chihli
  10. Further Evidences of the Spirit’s Mighty Work in Chihli
  11. God’s Dealings With Young People in Shantung
  12. How Revival Came to the Schools in Kiangsu
  13. Indispensable Factors in Revival

The Wikipedia article linked above is excellent, but lacks direct links to the books I have available by the Goforth’s listed here. I am not allowed to add them, but perhaps someone else could.

Patterson’s in China – Two Generations of Mission

Brown Craig Patterson [1865-1953]. The picture shows him standing on the steps of his home in Tengxian, probably in the mid-1930s.
Brown Craig Patterson [1865-1953]. The picture shows him standing on the steps of his home in Tengxian, probably in the mid-1930s.
A few weeks ago the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide put me in touch with Robert G. Patterson in the United States. Two generations of Robert’s family served as  missionaries in China and Robert and his late father (also Robert G. Patterson) have put together a valuable collection of material to document their family history. Robert has kindly agreed to allow me to host these books, so that they reach a wider readership. The following annotations are adapted from one of Robert’s e-mails and explains more about the collection. Please note that the file size of some of books is quite large.

Robert G. Patterson, ed., Craig Patterson in China. B.C. Patterson’s Memoirs, Supplemented by Selections from His Other Papers, with Photographs Added. Memphis, TN: Self-Published, 2006. pp.154.

Robert G. Patterson, ed., Anne H. Patterson., M.D. Memphis, TN: Self-Published, 2002. pp.46.

Brown Craig Patterson [26th June 1865 – 18th Sept. 1953] was my great-grandfather, who served in China during 1897-1940. Anne Houston Patterson [25th March 1867 – 9th Feb. 1954] was his wife and also a physician and founder of the hospital in Suqian. (Still operating today.) They both wrote memoirs and there were other missionary pamphlets that made it into the Anne Houston book.

Robert Glasgow Patterson, Frances Glasgow Patterson 1899-1975. Memphis, TN: Self-Published, 2010. pp.157.

Frances Glasgow Patterson [25th Jan. 1899 – 12th Jan. 1975] was my grandfather’s wife. This book provides perhaps a somewhat different perspective on the events of “My China That Was”. More of a history of her life than a memoir, it draws on letters and writings of both her and my grandfather.

Margaret Patterson Mack [1906-2005], My Heart’s Recollections. Memoirs of an American Woman Born and Raised in Early 20th Century China. Self-Published, 1999. pp.96.

“My Heart’s Recollections” is the memoir of my grandfather’s sister, Margaret Mack [19th June 1906 – 7th Nov. 2005]. It has many recollections of her childhood in China and then her work as a missionary in the Philippines. So far as I can remember, my father was no more than a technical consultant on this book. It was written and prepared by Margaret and her daughter.

Craig Houston Patterson [1897-1990], My China That Was. From the Boxer Rebellion to Pearl Harbor, 1st edn. Harrisberg, VA: Self-Published, 1990. pp.167.

Craig Houston Patterson [1897-1990], My China That Was. From the Boxer Rebellion to Pearl Harbor, 2nd edn. Memphis, TN: Self-Published, 1993. pp.194.

My father (a Robert G. Patterson like me) was very much an unacknowledged ghost writer for “My China That Was”. I detect his fingerprints particularly in the more scholarly sections, such as the descriptions of native Chinese religions, writing, and language. (These were his professional specialty as a college professor. I heard him talk about them many times while I don’t recall my grandfather ever mentioning them.) Nevertheless, the form of the text in the first edition had the full participation and approval of my grandfather. The 2nd edition seems mostly to be the same text rearranged with some stylistic emendations and formatted as a proper book.

Robert G. Patterson, Partnership in the Gospel. From the Junkin’s First Days in China to the Suqian Three-Self Church. Memphis, TN: Self-Published, 2005. pp.168.

Besides “My China That Was”, the other book I think you’ll find most interesting is “Partnership in the Gospel”, the history of Bill [26th Dec 1870 – 27th May 1947] and Nettie Junkin [28th April 1878 – 2nd Nov 1957] in China. These were family friends and fellow missionaries with B.C. and Anne Houston. Perhaps because it’s not particularly a family history, my father brought all his scholarly arts to bear. The version here appears to have been the result of three or four complete rewrites (with different working titles) at 2-3 year intervals over about 8-10 years. It still wasn’t complete. In the preface he stated the intention to add maps and photographs. But apparently he never got back to it after 2005. Nevertheless there is a large cache of Junkin photos on my Dad’s hard-drive, so he at least started the project.

Robert G. Patterson, Tirzah’s Packet. Willson, Patterson, and Blackwood Family Letters, 1837 to 1929, Collected and Preserved by Tirzah (Willson) Patterson. M.D. Memphis, TN: Self-Published, 2007. pp.134.

I’m not sure how much interest you’ll have in “Tirzah’s Packet”. Tirzah was my great-great-grandmother. (B. C.’s mother.) The book is my father’s presentation of a collection of 19th-century letters she had that came down to him. But it is also very relevant to the history of the Presbyterian Church in the Valley of Virginia of the 1800s.