Frederick Baedeker, Horace Underwood and Arthur Neve – Heroes of the Cross

Frontispiece: Dr. Baedeker preaching and distributing books to convicts in Siberia
Frontispiece: Dr. Baedeker preaching and distributing books to convicts in Siberia

Christine Isabel Tinling [1869-1943], one of the founders of the Algiers Evangelistic Band, wrote short biographies of three other missionary heroes who inspired her: Frederick Baedeker, Horace Underwood and Arthur Neve of Kashmir. My thanks to Book Aid for making a copy of this public domain title available for digitisation.

Christine Isabel Tinling [1869-1943], Heroes of the Cross. Dr Frederick Baedeker :: Horace Underwood :: Arthur Neve of Kashmir. London: Marshall, Morgan & Scott. Ltd., [1933]. Hbk. pp.96. [Click here to visit the download page for this title]


  • Frederick Baedeker the Prisoners’ Friend
  • Horace Underwood of Korea
  • Arthur Neve of Kashmir

Frederick Baedeker the Prisoners’ Friend

Baedeker! Have you ever heard that name before? Perhaps not. Ask those who have travelled abroad and they will say at once, ” Oh, yes, the guide book man!” Try it and see if they don’t. His name is so well known that it has almost become a common noun. People speak of taking their Baedeker with them, as they would speak of taking their umbrella or their purse.

Karl Baedeker was a German book-seller and publisher, and he brought out guide-books of different countries till he had described most of the civilised lands of the world. They were packed full of useful information and told you where to go and what to see and what to pay. They were printed in German and French and English and Baedeker thus became famous. His success was due to hard work: he was very careful and exact in all he wrote, and then too, he employed good scholars to help him.

But our story is about another Baedeker, not that one. The guide-book man had a cousin who sometimes W’I’ote for him, and he also became famous, in a different way. Karl was a guide to all parts of the earth and a very good one to: Frederick was to thousands of people a guide to heaven. He showed them the way to God; he taught them to put their trust in Jesus, who is the Way, the Truth and the Life.

Frederick became known as Doctor Baedeker, becauae of the letters Ph.D. after his name, which mean “doctor of philosophy ” not medicine. But the Russian peasants to whom he afterwards went called him “Dedouchka”  or “Dear Grandfather!’ In this story I shall use all these names and you can pick out the one you like the best.

But first we must call him Frederick and begin with his boyhood for, of course, it was only long afterwards that he earned his other names.

The little town of Witten, where he was born, is near the river Rhine, which is very beautiful thereabouts. In the Baedeker home there were four boys and two girls, and Frederick was the youngest son but one. They called him Fritz for short. Their father was a naturalist; he studied animals and particularly birds. This was very jolly for the children, for he could tell them no end of interesting things and they could help him hunt for specimens.

Mr. Baedeker had a big collection of birds and their eggs, some of them very rare. There were eggs of different shades and colours, brown and blue and green, pearly white ones and pretty speckled ones. They were all sizes too, from the big eggs of the eagle and the stork down to the tiny ones of the little hedge wren. He knew them all, and the children learned to know them too. Mr. Baedeker was so famous that when people in far away parts of Europe found some egg that they could not name, they would pack it up and send it to him and he would tell them what it was. He wrote a book about birds’ eggs and painted the pictures himself. After he died his collection was taken to Berlin and placed in a natural history museum.

Fritz’s mother was rather strict, but I expect those four boys needed to be kept in order and perhaps even the girls too. Six children are quite a houseful, and I dare say they made plenty of noise. Fritz was specially fond of his elder sister Pauline, and when he was in trouble it was to her he went….

Pages 5-6

Among the Wild Tribes of the Afghan Frontier with Theodore Pennell

Theodore Leighton Pennell [1867-1912], Among the Wild Tribes of the Afghan FrontierTheodore Leighton Pennell [1867-1912] was a medical missionary to the North West Frontier of what is today Pakistan. Writing in the The Biographical Dictionary of Christian Missions C.H. Grundmann notes:

Pennell’s fame was due not only to his medical skills and daring itinerations, mostly on bicycle and always moving unarmed amongst the heavily armed Muslim peoples of the mountains – but to his irenic missionary existence, of which he gave account in his widely read Among the Wild Tribes of the Afghan Frontier (1909). He adopted the Afghan ways of dress, food, and habits; ran a school; and operated a small printing press, from which he issued a newspaper in vernacular Pushtu. [p.525]

My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of this book to scan. This title is in the public domain.

Theodore Leighton Pennell [1867-1912], Among the Wild Tribes of the Afghan Frontier. A Record of Sixteen Years Close Intercourse With the Natives of the Indian Marches, 5th edn. London: Seeley, Service & Co., Ltd., 1913. Hbk. pp.324. [Download complete book in PDF]


  • Introduction
  • Prefaces
  1. The Afghan Character
  2. Afghan Traditions
  3. Border Warriors
  4. A Frontier Valley
  5. The Christian’s Revenge
  6. A Day in the Wards
  7. From Morning to Night
  8. The Itinerant Missionary
  9. Afghan Mullahs
  10. A Tale of a Talib
  11. School-Work
  12. An Afghan Football Team
  13. ‘Alum Gul’s Choice
  14. ‘Alum Gul’s Choice (Continued)
  15. Afghan Women
  16. The Story of a Convert
  17. The Hindu Ascetics
  18. Sadhus and Faqirs
  19. My Life as a Mendicant
  20. A Frontier Episode
  21. Frontier Campaigning
  22. Chikki, The Freebooter
  23. Rough Diamonds
  24. Deductions
  25. A Forward Policy

Theodore Pennell, Medical Missionary to the Afghan Tribes

A(rthur) L(ancaster), Pennell of BannuTheodore Leighton Pennell [1867–1912] founded a missionary hospital and a mission boarding school in what is today Pakistan. Wikipedia provides a helpful summary of his life and work. My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of this book. This title is in the Public Domain.

A(rthur) L(ancaster), Pennell of Bannu. London: Church Missionary Society, 1913. Pbk. pp.60. [Click to download in PDF]


The following brief sketch has been prepared at the request of the Committee of the Church Missionary Society in response to a desire expressed in many quarters for some account of the life and work of Dr. Pennell in a form suitable for wide circulation.

It is written with the earnest hope that some amongst its readers may be constrained to follow Pennell’s most stimulating example and give themselves to medical mission work, or at least to seek to forward the cause which he held so dear.

A book of this size cannot attempt to provide much of interesting detail or incident. A wealth of incident, however, is to be found in that fascinating volume by Dr. Pennell himself, Among the Wild Tribes of the Afghan Frontier (published by Messrs. Seeley, Service & Co.); while further stores of yet deeper interest will doubtless be available on the publication, in ·a few months’ time, of the full biography, by the one best able to prepare it.

The reason for the inclusion of General Scott-Moncrieff’s paper (from Blackwood’s Magazine of last July) will, it is hoped, be obvious to all who read it. An account written by a fellow-missionary must almost of necessity be somewhat partial, and this very vivid impression of Dr. Pennell’s personality from the point of view of the responsible Government official has a special value both as supplementing that which precedes it and as correcting the popular idea that official opinion is always adverse to missionaries and their work. [Continue reading]

Roland Bateman, Missionary Bible Translator in the Punjab

R. Maconachie, Rowland Bateman. Nineteenth Century ApostleRoland Bateman [1860-1916] served as a Bible translator in the Punjab. This book, written by a close friend in the Indian Civil Service, tells the story of his life and work.

R. Maconachie, Rowland Bateman. Nineteenth Century Apostle. London: Church Missionary Society, 1917. Hbk. pp.208. [Click to download in PDF]

Reproduced by kind permission of the Church Missionary Society.


1 – Parentage, Birth, and Early Days
2 – The Punjab as a Missionary Environment
3 – His Personality
4 – Work at Dera Ismail Khan, 1868-9
5 – Work at Amritsar and Lahore, 1869-72
6 – Itineration From Manhopur, 1872-4
7 – Early Visits to Narowal, 1872-4
8 – Narowal, Home, and Narowal Again-Typhoid Fever, 1874-7
9 – Clarkabad – Marriage – Second Furlough – Narowal – Kashmir, 1876-85
10 – Narowal – Three Visits to England – Beginning of “Outcaste” Work – Last Years at Narowal, 1886-97
11 – Home – Canada – The Indian Aftermath – Last Days in India, 1897-1902
12 – A “Fisher of Men” – Living Epistles
13 – Deputation Work – Sermons – Addresses
14 – R.B. as He Appeared to His Friends
15 – Work in England, 1902-15
16 – The End – A Beginning


If any reader of this book is given to the habit of “skipping over” a Preface, I hope he will make an exception in the present case, otherwise an injustice may be done to him whose life is here described, as well as to the writer, though that is a point of less importance. Had Rowland Bateman (or as I shall generally call him for convenience “R. B.”) followed his own inclinations, he would not have had his biography written at all. During the course, however, of his last illness, representations were made to him that an account of the work which God had done through him might still after his death serve the great cause to which he had so whole-heartedly given his life. After some hesitation he acquiesced in the proposal, but expressed his wish that I should write the story. I take up the task therefore as a trust, and can only hope that remembering steadily the purpose of the book, and doing my best to represent faithfully the man and his work, I may produce something not quite unworthy of the “noble dead.” [Continue reading]

Arthur Neve of Kashmir by A.P. Shepherd

A Wayside Audience - Dr. A. Neve and Mr. Gustafson in the Shigar Valley

Arthur Neve of Kashmir by A.P. Shepherd

The case of Kashmir illustrates well one of the problems one faces when in dividing the world according to modern national borders when studying the history of mission. Both boundaries and country names have changed over time, so it is often difficult to decide in which country to place some titles.

Both India and Pakistan both appear in the top 4 countries requested in my Facebook Group Poll, so I hope that this account of Arthur Neve’s life as a medical missionary proves of interest.

A.P. Shepherd, Arthur Neve of Kashmir. London: Church Missionary Society, 1926. Hbk. pp.136. Click to download in PDF.

This title is reproduced by kind permission of the Church Missionary Society.


1 – Boyhood
2 – The Spoil of Conquerors
3 – On the Road to Srinagar
4 – The City of the Sun
5 – The Hospital
6 – The Doctor on His Rounds
7 – The Earthquake
8 – The City of Dreadful Death
9 – A Mountain Holiday
10 – Some Patients
11 – On the Great Trade Route
12 – Flood, Famine, and Plague
13 – The Healing Hand
14 – After Thirty Years
15 – Home Life and Holidays
16 – War Pictures
17 – L’Envoi



It is written of an officer in the army of King Charles I that “he served his king with difficult, dangerous, and ‘expensive loyalty.” These words aptly describe Arthur Neve of Kashmir and the service which he gave so unsparingly for thirty-eight years in Kashmir and beyond. Endowed with gifts which would have won him fame and distinction at home, he yet chose to devote his life to the service of God and humanity in one of the world’s backwaters.

No attempt has been made in these pages to give a complete and detailed account of Dr. Neve’s career; but it has seemed well to present in broad outline some pictures of the man at his work in order to show to the men and women of to-day the life of a medical missionary. Dr. Neve’s desire was “to make it easier for those who come after.” The hospital at Srinagar, where his brother still works, and the hospitals along the North-West Frontier are waiting with eager longing to welcome physicians and surgeons who will build on foundations that were well laid by the great men who have gone before.

Salisbury Square,
July, 1926

[Continue reading]