First Fifty Years of the Sudan United Mission

J. Lowry Maxwell, Half a Century of Grace. A Jubilee History of the Sudan United MissionThis is the official history of the first half-century of the Sudan United Mission from its founding in 1904 by Karl Kumm and Lucy Guinness.

This work is still in copyright and is republished here by kind permission of Pioneers UK. You are allowed to use this book for free educational purposes, but not to republish it for profit without the express written permission of the copyright holder.

J. Lowry Maxwell, Half a Century of Grace. A Jubilee History of the Sudan United Mission. London: Sudan United Mission, [1954] Hbk. pp.331. [Click to visit the download page]


  1. The Call
  2. The Vision and the Need
  3. “To the Help of the Lord against the Mighty”
  4. The First Reinforcements
  5. Spreading Branches and Spreading Roots
  6. Doing the Work
  7. The Freed Slaves’ Home
  8. The First Inter-Mission Conference
  9. Planning for the African Church
  10. War Days With Brightening Prospects
  11. New Developments
  12. Deeper and Wider Yet
  13. Beginning in French Territory
  14. Towards an African Church
  15. Our Opportunities are our Embarrassments
  16. A Fresh Start in Training Helpers
  17. “And Then a Brook”
  18. Reaching out to Mohammedans
  19. Fellow-Stewards of the Mysteries
  20. The World War Years
  21. War Helps the Church to Find its Feet
  22. The Rising Tide of Church Life
  23. Fresh Expansion and Fresh Difficulties
  24. New Help and New Problems
  25. Difficulties and Developments
  26. The Look Round and the Look Ahead

For more resources on the Sudan United Mission go here.

Missions and Modern History by Robert E. Speer

Robert E. Speer, Missions and Modern HistoryRobert E. Speer sets out his threefold purpose in writing this history of 19th Century missions:

  • To correct distortions of the facts;
  • To demonstrate the significance of missions in world events;
  • To inform the reading public of important recent events.

My thanks to the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for making these volumes available for digitisation. These books are in the public domain.

Robert E. Speer, Missions and Modern History. A Study of the Missionary Aspects of Some Great Movements of the Nineteenth Century, 2 Vols. New York: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1904. Hbk. pp. 714. [Click here to visit the download page]


  • Preface
  1. The Tai-Ping Rebellion
  2. The Indian Mutiny
  3. The Religion of the Bab
  4. The Emancipation of Latin America
  5. The Development of Africa
  6. The Reform Movement in Hinduism 

    Second Volume 

  7. The Tong Hak Insurrection
  8. The Transformation of Japan
  9. The Armenian Massacres
  10. The Going of the Spaniard
  11. The Boxer Uprising
  12. The Coming of the Slav
  13. Missions and the World Movement
  • Index

Chapter 13: Missions and the World-Movement

Of the twelve great movements which have been considered, all but two have been related to Asia. We are often told that Asia is the immovable continent, that she is what she has been and that she will remain what she is, that “some strange fiat of arrest, probably due to mental exhaustion has condemned the brown men and the yellow men to eternal reproduction of old ideas,” that there notion and institution have hardened into permanency and that the continent must be regarded as alien to great moral or intellectual movements and separate from the stirrings of life that work ceaseless change in the West. How is it possible to reconcile such a view with the facts which have passed before us? These Asiatic nations are alive. The stock is not exhausted. “The theory that China’s dependence is due to the fact that she has long since reached maturity and has outlived the natural term of national existence does not hold good….

Snapshot of China and Chinese Missions from 1907

Marshall Broomhall [1866-1937], The Chinese Empire. A General and Missionary Survey.This is an extremely detailed province-by-province survey of Chinese life and the progress of Christian missions there up to 1907. It is written by multiple authors who each had personal experience of the region they wrote about.

This title is in the public domain. My thanks to Redcliffe College for making a copy available for digitisation.

Marshall Broomhall [1866-1937], The Chinese Empire. A General and Missionary Survey. London: Morgan & Scott, [1907]. Hbk. pp.472. [Click to visit the download page]


  • Preface by The Rt. Hon. Sir Ernest Satow, G.C.M.G
  • Editor’s Preface
  • Introduction by Marshall Broomhall. Geography; Early Nestorian Missions; First Roman Catholic Effort; Second Roman Catholic Effort. Protestant Missions: Period of Preparation, 1807-1842; Period of the Ports, 1842-1860; Period of Penetration, 1860-1877; Period of Progress, Persecution, and Prosperity, 1878-1907.
  • The Province of Kwagtung by The Rev. J. Campbell Gibson, M.A., D.D. English Presbyterian Mission. Arrived In China 1874.
  • The Province of Fukien by The Rev. Llewellyn Lloyd, Church Missionary Society. Arrived In China 1876.
  • The Island of Formosa by The Rev. Thomas Barclay, M.A., English Presbyterian. Mission. Arrived In China 1874.
  • The Province of Chekiang by the Ven. Archdeacon A. E. Moule, B.D., Church Missionary Society. Arrived In China 1861.
  • The Province of Kiangsu by Rev. John Darroch, Translator For Shansi Imperial University. Arrived In China 1887.
  • The Province of Shantung by Mr. C. F. Hogg. Arrived In China 1884.
  • The Province of Chihli by The Rev. Thomas Bryson, London Missionary Society. Arrived In China 1866.
  • The Province of Hupeh by The Rev. Arnold Foster, B.A., London Missionary Society. Arrived In China 1871.
  • The Province of Kiangsi By Mr. Archibald Orr-Ewing, China Inland Mission. Arrived In China 1886.
  • The Province of Anhwei by The Rev. J. J. Coulthard, China Inland Mission. Arrived In China 1879.
  • The Province of Honan by G. Whitfield Guinness, B.A., M.B., China Inland Mission. Arrived In China 1897.
  • The Province of Hunan By Mr. A. H. Harris, Late Acting Commissioner of Customs, Changsha. Arrived In China 1883.
  • The Province of Kansu by Marshall Broomhall, In China 1890-1899.
  • The Province of Shensi by Marshall Broomhall, In China 1890-1899.
  • The Province of Shansi by Mr. Albert Lutley, China Inland Mission, Arrived In China 1887,
  • The Province of Szechwan by Mr. Jushu-A Vale, China Inland Mission. Arrived In China. 1887.
  • The Province of Yunnan by The Rev. John M’carthy, China Inland Mission. Arrived In China 1867.
  • The Province of Kweichow by The Rev. Samuel Clarke, China Inland Mission. Arrived In China 1878.
  • The Province of Kwangsi by The Rev. Louis Byrde, B.A., Church Missionary Society. Arrived In China 1898.
  • The Province of Sinkiang by Mr. George Hunter, China Inland Mission. Arrived In China 1889.
  • Manchuria by The Rev. J. W. Inglis, M.A., United Free Church of Scotland. Arrived In Manchuria in 1890.
  • Tibet by Mr. Cecil Polhill, China Inland Mission. Arrived In China 1885.
  • Mongolia by Marshall Broomhall. And Supplementary Section on Work For the Mongols At Kalgan, By Rev. J. H. Roberts, American Board of C.F.M. Arrived In China 1877.
  • The Bible in the Chinese Empire by Marshall Broomhall; Based on Material Supplied by the British and Foreign Bible Society.
  • Appendices
    I. Philology
    II. The Jews in China
    Ill. Introduction of Christianity Into China
    IV. Biographical Outlines
  • Indices
    I. Chronological
    II. General
    III. Missionary Societies
  • IV. Biographical or Personal
    V. Topographical

By My Spirit by Jonathan Goforth

Jonathan Goforth [1859-1936] and his wife Rosalind [1864-1942] were Canadian Presbyterian Missionaries who were encouraged to serve in China by the writings of Hudson Taylor. Jonathan was wounded with a sword during the Boxer Uprising and the couple returned briefly to Canada on furlough in 1900.

After their return to Henan in 1901, Jonathan Goforth felt increasingly restless. In 1904 and 1905 he was inspired by news of the great Welsh revival and read Charles Finney’s “Lectures on Revivals”. In 1907, circumstances brought him to witness firsthand the stirring Korean revival (“When the Spirit’s Fire Swept Korea” [1943] represents his response). As Goforth returned to China through Manchuria, congregations invited him back in early 1908. During this extended visit there the “Manchurian revival” broke out. It was the first such revival to gain nationwide publicity in China as well as international repute. The revival transformed Goforth’s life and ministry; from then on he was primarily an evangelist and revivalist, not a settled missionary. He also became one of the best known of all China missionaries, admired by many, but criticized by some for “emotionalism.” [Wikipedia]

As the Wikipedia article notes: “Jonathan Goforth became the foremost missionary revivalist in early 20th-century China and helped to establish revivalism as a major element in Protestant China missions.” This book sets out to explain his thinking on the subject.

Jonathan Goforth [1859-1936], By My Spirit. London & Edinburgh: Marshall, Morgan & Scott, [1929]. Hbk. pp.189. [Click to visit the downlaod page].

This title is in the public domain. My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy for digitisation.


  • Preface
  1. Introductory
  2. A Season of Intensive Preparation
  3. The Beginning of fhe Movement in Manchuria
  4. Further Triumphs of the Spirit in Manchuria
  5. Repentance and Confession in Shansi
  6. An Outpouring of Divine Blessing Upon Chantehfu
  7. The Lord’s Presence and Power in the Chantehfu Out-Stations
  8. Evil Spirits Defeated and Cast Out in Honan
  9. Hindrances Swept Away When the Spirit Worked in Chihli
  10. Further Evidences of the Spirit’s Mighty Work in Chihli
  11. God’s Dealings With Young People in Shantung
  12. How Revival Came to the Schools in Kiangsu
  13. Indispensable Factors in Revival

The Wikipedia article linked above is excellent, but lacks direct links to the books I have available by the Goforth’s listed here. I am not allowed to add them, but perhaps someone else could.

Richard Knill of St Petersburg

The Rev Richard Knill [1887-1957]
The Rev Richard Knill [1887-1957]. Frontispiece
The Rev. Richard Knill [14 April 1787 – 2 January 1857] was a missionary with the London Missionary Society. He served first in India, but after a bout of cholera was assigned to Russia where his ministry was far more successful. With the assistance of members of the nobility he was instrumental in the establishment of a Protestant Bible society in that country. Following his return to England in 1842 he became a Congregationalist minister in Gloucestershire. [See Wikipedia article here]

My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of this book for digitisation. This title is in the public domain.

C.M. Birrell [1811-1880], The Life of the Rev. Richard Knill of St. Petersburg. London: The Religious Tract Society, [1859]. Hbk. pp.272. [Click here to visit the download page]

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Preface to First Edition
  1. Early Days A.D. 1792-1812
  2. Missionary Consecration A.D. 1812-1814
  3. Putting on the Armour A.D. 1814, 1815
  4. The First Campaign, A.D. 1816-1818
  5. The Russian Capital, 1820-1823
  6. Storms, 1824, 1825
  7. Gleams, A.D. 1826
  8. Blue Skies, A.D. 1828, 1829
  9. Shadows of the Pestilence, A.D. 1830-1832
  10. Widening Horizon, 1834-1847
  11. Sunset, A.D. 1814-1857
  12. Review of Mr Knills Life and Character by the Rev John Angell
  • Postscript by the Editor


It was during a visit to St. Petersburg in the winter of 1831-32,-the last winter but one of his own residence in the country, that I became acquainted with Mr. Knill and the small circle of English Christians which there surrounded him. There was nothing in the city at that time more deserving of the admiration of a stranger than the union in these men of the habits of commercial life and the elevated tone of Christians-of the spirit of enterprise, nurtured by faith, with the submissive adjustment of conduct to the course rendered possible by jealous hierarchy and the absolute civil government under which they lived. At a time when the smallest measure of haste or imprudence would have imperilled their personal liberty or their leave to remain longer in the country, they were able first to translate, then to pass through the censorship, and eventually to disseminate far and wide, a large number of select religious publications; while the copies of the New Testament which had been arrested by Imperial decree and stored away in the cellars of the Holy Synod….

Mary Reed, Missionary to the Lepers

Mary ReedMary Reed [1854-1943] was an American missionary to India. Diagnosed with leprosy herself in 1891, she took this to be God’s guidance that she should work among the lepers of Chandag where she served for 52 years. Below are links to two titles on Mary Reed, both written within her lifetime. The first I am assuming to be still in copyright to The Leprosy Mission who are happy for my to make it available on-line. It may be used for free educational purposes, but not sold for profit without permission from the copyright holder. The second title is in the public domain. My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing copies of these books for digitisation.

E. Mackerchar, Mary Reed of Chandag, 5th edn. London: The Mission to Lepers, n.d. Pbk. pp.32. [Click to visit the download page]

John Jackson [1853-1917], Mary Reed: Missionary to the Lepers, 9th revd. & enlarged edn., 1908. London: Marshall Brothers, 1899. Hbk. pp.133. [Click to visit the download page]


  • Extract from Miss Reed’s Letter
  • Preface to the New and Enlarged Edition (the Ninth)
  • Introductory Words by Rev. F.B. Meyer
  1. Early Life
  2. Discovery and Decision
  3. The Way of the Cross
  4. Appointed to Chandag
  5. Among the Lepers
  6. Trials and Triumphs – 1894
  7. Praise and Progress – 1895
  8. A Welcome Visitor – 1895
  9. Travail of Soul – 1896
  10. Year by Year
  11. Christmas With the Lepers
  12. A Vision of the Night
  13. Divided Duties – 1897
  14. Light and Shade – 1898
  15. The Prayer of Faith – 1899

Appendix – Bringing the Narrative up to August, 1908.

Missions and the Minor Prophets – 6 Bible Studies

Frederic Sumpter Guy Warman [1872-1953], Missions and the Minor ProphetsThis little book presents a short series of Bible studies about what the minor prophets have to say about Christian Missions. The author was the Principal of St Aidan’s Theological College in Birkenhead. Although the Wikipedia article does not mention it, most of the library from St Aidan’s was merged with the library of Liverpool Cathedral in 1970. I know this because when I worked in Liverpool Cathedral I spent many happy lunch hours browsing through them. My thanks to the Church Mission Society for their permission to place this book on-line.

Frederic Sumpter Guy Warman [1872-1953], Missions and the Minor Prophets. A Series of Bible Studies. London: Church Missionary Society, 1909. Hbk. pp.118. [Click to visit the download page for this title]


  • Introduction
  • Suggestions to Leaders and Students
  • The Prophets of Israel
  1. Jonah, an Early Missionary to the Heathen
  2. Joel, the Social Reformer
  3. Amos and his Gospel
  4. Haggai and Church Building
  5. Zechariah, the Prophet of Hope
  6. Malachi, the Messenger of the Advent


The purpose of this little book is a simple one; it is to help the student of the Bible and the student of Missions. The Christian who realizes the full blessing of the Gospel is both of these. But he sometimes thinks that the two studies are distinct, that they must be kept separate; it is a mistake, and sometimes a costly one. We can study the principles of the Kingdom of God in the Bible; we can watch the development of these principles in the mission-field; we can ponder God’s dealing with men in centuries long past; we can see Him deal with men in the same all-wise, all-loving way in the Uganda or China of to-day. And the double study confirms our faith, excites our earnest service, in a way which can be done by neither study alone. We are apt to forget that the God Who by His Spirit made the story of the Church of Antioch a wonderful story indeed is the same God Who to-day writes for us the wonderful story of Uganda….

Short History of the Church Missionary Society

Eugene Stock [1836-1928], One Hundred Years. Being the Short History of the Church Missionary SocietyIf you are looking for a history of the first century of the Church Missionary Society but don’t have time to read Eugene Stock’s massive four volume work, this slim volume will be of help to you. My thanks to Redcliffe College for making this book available for digitisation. This title is in the public domain.

Eugene Stock [1836-1928], One Hundred Years. Being the Short History of the Church Missionary Society. London: Church Missionary Society, 1899. Hbk. pp.188. [Click to visit the downlaod page]


  • Preface
  1. One Hundred Years Ago
  2. Ninety Years Ago (1800-1809)
  3. Eighty Years Ago (1809-1819)
  4. Seventy Years Ago (1819-1829)
  5. Sixty Years Ago (1829-1839)
  6. Fifty Years Ago (1839-1849)
  7. Forty Years Ago (1849-1859)
  8. Thirty Years Ago (1859-1869)
  9. Twenty Years Ago (1869-1879)
  10. Ten Years Ago (1879-1889)
  11. The Last Ten Years (1889-1898)
  12. The Last Ten Years (Continued)
  13. Conclusion
  • Chronological Table
  • Index of Persons and Places


This little book has been written for publication in advance of the complete· History of the Church Missionary Society. The greater part of it consists of a very brief summary of some of the facts given in the larger work; and here and there sentences and paragraphs are actually reproduced from the still unpublished volumes. But part of Chapter IX., and Chapters X. and XI., have had to be written before the corresponding portions of the complete History. To many of the most · important parts of the complete History, however, there is nothing corresponding in these pages. For the History dwells at some length upon the environment of the Society at different periods in the century, that is to say, upon the state of the Church of England at home, noticing various religious movements, developments, and controversies, and introducing such men as Bishops Blomfield and Wilberforce, Archbishops Tait and Benson, Lords Shaftesbury and Cairns, Sir Arthur Blackwood and Mr. Pennefather, Bishop Ryle and Canon Hoare….

Living Forces of the Gospel – a Psychological Study of Missions

This is the first psychological study of missions that I have come across in the books given to me by Redcliffe College for digitisation. This book was written by a German missionary working in the Islands of the Indian Archipelago. This title is in the public domain.

Johannes Gustav Warneck [1867-1946], The Living Forces of the GospelThe Living Forces of the Gospel. Experiences of a Missionary in Animistic Heathenism. Edinburgh & London: Olphant, Anderson & Ferrier, 1909. Hbk. pp.312. [Click to visit the download page]


  • Preface to the English Edition
  • Preface to the Third German Edition
  • Introduction
  1. Animistic Heathenism
  2. First Contact Between Heathenism and Christianity
  3. The Victorious Forces of the Gospel
  • Index

Preface to the English edition

This book is a psychological study based upon the author’s experience as a missionary among the animistic heathen of the Indian Archipelago. There has been much unanimity among German missionaries as to his conclusions, and the author would take advantage of this translation of his work to appeal to all English speaking missionaries, and those interested in the work and literature of missions, for their criticism and observations. He found that the conversion of heathen in Netherland India was effected by stages; it would be extremely valuable to him to know whether the experience of missionaries in Africa, in Oceania, in Central America, in India and China are similar to his own. He would like especially to learn the minds of missionaries on the following questions: Whether the first thing in the Gospel that attracts is deliverance from the fear of demons; whether the sense of sin and the longing for forgiveness is a later growth; whether Christ is accepted first of all as a Deliverer from the devil, then from the state of fear in which their lives are spent, and last of all as the Saviour from sin?…

Works of Roland Allen Enter the Public Domain

Roland Allen [1868-1947], Missionary Methods St. Paul's or Ours9th June 2018 marks the 71st Anniversary of the death of Roland Allen, one the most influential missionary thinkers of the Twentieth Century. This also means that his numerous works are now all in the public domain.

My thanks to the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for providing copies the following titles, include his most famous book, Missionary Methods St. Paul’s or Ours.

Roland Allen [1868-1947], Missionary Methods St. Paul’s or Ours. A Study of the Church in the Four Provinces. London: Robert Scott, 1912. Hbk. pp.234. [Click to visit the download page]

Roland Allen [1868-1947], Missionary Principles. London: Robert Scott, 1913. Hbk. pp.168. [Click to visit the download page]

Roland Allen [1868-1947], Educational Principles and Missionary Methods: The Application of Educational Principles to Missionary Evangelism. London: Robert Scott, 1919. Hbk. pp.138. [Click to visit the download page]

I thought that this extract for the Wikipedia article on Roland Allen would serve as a helpful introduction.

Allen became an early advocate of establishing Churches which from the beginning would be self-supporting, self-propagating, and self-governing, adapted to local conditions and not merely imitations of Western Christianity. These views were confirmed by a trip to India in 1910 and by later research in Canada and East Africa. It is with this background that Allen wrote his book Missionary Methods which was first published in 1912. It has been suggested that his thought was influenced in part by the earlier primitivist writings of Anthony Norris Groves and by the Brethren movement.

Allen’s approach to Mission strategy for indigenous Churches is based on the study of Saint Paul’s missionary methods as he is convinced that in them can be found the solution to most of the difficulties of the day. He believed it was the recognition of the church as a local entity and trust in the Holy Spirit’s indwelling within the converts and churches which was the mark of Paul’s success. In contrast was Allen’s belief that the people of his day were unable to entrust their converts to the Holy Spirit and instead relied in His work through them.

Read more about Roland Allen here.