Encyclopedia of Missions (1904)

Henry Otis Dwight, H. Allen Tupper & Edwin Munsell Bliss, eds, The Encyclopedia of Missions. Descriptive, Biographical Statistical, 2nd ednThis massive 851 page Encyclopedia provides a tremendously detailed snapshot of the progress of Christian Missions up to 1904. As one would expect it also reflects many of the prejudices of its age – see the entry on Australia, for example. My thanks to the Cambridge Centre For Christianity Worldwide for providing me with a copy to scan. This title is in the public domain.

Henry Otis Dwight, H. Allen Tupper & Edwin Munsell Bliss, eds, The Encyclopedia of Missions. Descriptive, Biographical Statistical, 2nd edn. New York & London: Fumk & Wagnalls Company, 1904. Hbk. pp.851. [Click to download the complete volume in PDF]

Preface to the Second Edition

No long series of reasons need be given why The Encyclopedia of Missions demands revision after twelve vears. Political changes have parceled out among the nations the islands of the Pacific, have brought one at least of the Asiatic nations into parity of influence with Western Powers in shaping the destinies of the Far East, and have marked all Africa with the familiar national colors of Europe and made her mysterious central regions a field for the personally-conducted tourist, and a participant in the privileges of the Universal Postal Union. The body of experience in the mission field has crystallized into what is sometimes called a “Science of missions,” made up of more or less exact principles of labor, which are more and more widely accepted by missionaries of all nations as fundamental. [Continue reading]

Our Empire’s Debt to Missions by James N. Ogilvie

James Nicoll Ogilvie [1860-1926], Our Empires Debt to Missions. The Duff Missionary Lecture 1923.The relationship of the British Empire with Christian missions is a subject that is often discussed. Anyone tasked with an essay on such a subject could do worse than refer to this volume, written as it is by someone who is clearly in favour of the partnership. This material was originally presented as the Duff Missionary Lecture in 1923 and appeared in print in a slightly expanded form the following year.

My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of the book for digitisation. This title is in the public domain.

James Nicoll Ogilvie [1860-1926], Our Empires Debt to Missions. The Duff Missionary Lecture 1923. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1924. Hbk. pp.276. [Click to download complete book in PDF]


  • Preface
  1. The Adjustment of Relations – Recognition of Christian Missions by the Empire
  2. The Adjustment of Relations – Recognition of the Empire by Christian Missions
  3. The Civilising Work of Missions Among the Child-Races of the Empire
  4. Missions and Eastern Civilisations
  5. Christian Missions and the Average Man of Other Faiths
  6. Concerning Criticisms
  7. Christian Missions – The Empire’s Conscience
  8. In Payment of the Debt – Postscript
  • Index


A few years hence the British Empire will reach its three hundred and fiftieth anniversary, seeing that its beginning may fairly be assigned to the year 1578. It was in that year that Queen Elizabeth gave her royal authorisation to Sir Humphrey Gilbert, “to take possession of all remote and barbarous lands, unoccupied by any Christian prince or people.” To-day, this frank disregard of the eighth commandment, when dealing with lands or peoples beyond the Christian pale, amazes us, but it is entirely characteristic of the international morality of the Europe of that time. Spain, Portugal and France, each in turn, had followed this loose moral code in their overseas expansion, and had done so with the express sanction of the Pope. [Continue reading]

Life of Alexander Duff by George Smith

George Smith [1833-1919], The Life of Alexander DuffThis is the third and slightly abridged edition of George Smith’s 1879 biography of Alexander Duff, missionary to India. My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of the book for scanning. This title is in the public domain.

George Smith [1833-1919], The Life of Alexander Duff, 3rd edn., Revised and Abridged. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1899. Hbk. pp. 385. [Click to download the complete book in PDF]


  • Preface
  1. The Boy and the Student
  2. The First Missionary of the Church of Scotland
  3. The Two Shipwrecks
  4. Calcutta as it Was
  5. The Mine Prepared
  6. The First Explosion and the Four Converts
  7. The Renascence in India – The English Language and the Church
  8. The Renascence in India – Science and Letters
  9. Work for Europeans, Eurasians, and Native Christians
  10. The Invalid and the Orator
  11. Dr. Duff Organising
  12. Fishers of Men
  13. Egypt – Sinai – Bambay – Madras
  14. The College and its Spiritual Fruit
  15. Missionary of the Free Church of Scotland
  16. Continuity of the Work
  17. Lord Harding’s Administration – THe “Calcutta Review”
  18. Tour Through South India – Home
  19. Dr. Duff Organising Again
  20. Moderator of the General Assembly – Before the Lords’ India Committee
  21. In America – Second Farewell to Christendom
  22. The Mutiny and the Native Church of India
  23. Last Days in India
  24. In South-East Africa – THe Missionary Propaganda
  25. New Missions and the Results of Half a Century’s Work
  26. Dr. Duff at Home
  27. Ecclesiastical
  28. Dying
  • Index

Chapter I. 1806-1829. The Boy and the Student

The spiritual ancestry of Alexander Duff it is not difficult to trace to Charles Simeon. Heredity, even on its physical side, is a mystery which modern science has as yet failed to explain. Much more difficult is it to discover all that is comprehended in the influences through which the character receives its motive power and peculiar colouring. It was the remark of Duff himself, when, in the fulness of his fame, he congratulated a young friend on a firstborn son, that in nothing is the sovereignty of God so clearly seen as in the birth of a child; the fact, the sex, the circumstances, the bent. To be at all is much; to be this rather than that is, to the individual, more: but to be the subject and the channel of a divine force such as has made the men who have reformed the world, in the days from the apostles to the greatest modern missionaries, is so very much more, that we may well look m every case for the signs which lie about their infancy. [Continue reading]

George Smith’s 1887 Biography of William Carey

This is George Smith’s biography of the Father of Modern Missions, William Carey. Smith devotes a significant part of the book to enumerating Carey’s achievements, as a linguist, a Bible translator, as a pioneer in agriculture and horticulture (which I was not aware of before), as an educator and advocate of missions.

My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of this book for digitisation. This title is in the public domain.

George Smith [1833-1919], The Life of William Carey, D.D. Shoemaker and Missionary, 2nd ednGeorge Smith [1833-1919], The Life of William Carey, D.D. Shoemaker and Missionary, 2nd edn. London: John Murray, 1887. Hbk. pp.389. [Click to download complete book in PDF]



Preface to Second Edition

  1. Carey’s College
  2. The Birth of England’s Foreign Missions
  3. India as Catrey Found It
  4. Six Years in North Bengal – Missionary and Indigo Planter
  5. The New Crusade – Serampore and the Brotherhood
  6. The First Native Converts and Christian Schools
  7. Calcutta and the Mission Centres From Dehli to Amboyna
  8. Carey’s Family and Friends
  9. Professor of Sanskrit, Bengali and Marathi
  10. The Wiclif of the East – Bible Translation
  11. What Carey Did For Literature and For Humanity
  12. What Carey Did For Science – Founder of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India
  13. Carey’s Immediate Influence in Great Britain amd America
  14. Carey as an Educator – The First Christian College in the East
  15. Carey’s Last Days



On the death of William Carey in 1834 Dr. Joshua Marsh-man promised to write the Life of his great colleague, with whom he had held almost daily converse since the beginning of the century, but he survived too short a time to begin the work. As a writer of culture, in full sympathy and frequent correspondence with Carey, the Rev. Christopher Anderson, of Edinburgh, was even better fitted for the task. In 1836 the Rev. Eustace Carey anticipated him by issuing what is little better than a selection of mutilated letters and journals made at the request of the Committee of the Baptist Missionary Society. It contains one passage of value, however. [Continue reading]

In Brigands’ Hands & Turkish Prisons – Archibald Forder

Archibald Forder [1863-1934], In Brigands' Hands and Turkish Prisons 1914-1918Archibald Forder [1863-1934] was a Pentecostal Missionary in Palestine. He wrote this account of his work there during his internment during World War I in a Turkish prison in Damascus. Eric Nelson Newberg, notes that:

Forder had a deep affection for Arab peoples, especially the Bedouin tribes among whom he itinerated widely. Using St. Catherine’s Monastery as a home base. Forder made many evangelistic forays among the Bedouins encamped in secluded locations of the Sinai. ‘With fondness he remembers, “While drinking our after-supper coffee, I told these people the Old, Old Story, and have reason to believe that some, at least, realized that they were sinners and their only hope was in the Saviour Jesus Christ.” [The Pentecostal Mission in Palestine. Pickwick Publications, 2012. p.55.]

My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing me with a copy to digitise. This title is in the public domain.

Archibald Forder [1863-1934], In Brigands’ Hands and Turkish Prisons 1914-1918. London: Marshall Brothers, Ltd., 1919. Hbk. pp.314. [Click to download entire book in PDF]


  • Preface
  • Foreword
  1. Behind Prison Bars
  2. Waiting For Death
  3. Prison Customs, Life and Doings
  4. Release, Reunion, Re-separation
  5. The Aftermath
  6. Boyhood Days
  7. My Parents
  8. Starting in Life
  9. Off to the Changing Bawdee
  10. The Bawdee, and Some of Its Includes
  11. The People of the Bawdee
  12. Breaking Ground in the Bawdee
  13. Trapped by the Bedouin
  14. Under the Shadow of Death
  15. How Deliverance Came
  16. Some Home Itinerating Experiences
  17. Experiences on the Field
  18. Islam and its Evreyday Requirements and Workings
  19. Life in the Bawdee, How Affected by Islam
  20. Palestine Peasant Life and How Affected by Islam
  21. Hagar in the Wilderness
  22. Ahmenee, a Tragedy of the Bawdee
  23. Love versus Custom, A Story of the Bawdee
  24. Out-schemed by a Woman
  25. Thrice Lost, A Tale of Bawdee Woman Life
  26. Found, But Only to be Lost Again
  27. Looks, Desires, Needs, Possibilities
  28. El-Bawdee

Between the Desert and the Sea by Isabelle Lilias Trotter

I. Lilias Trotter, Between the Desert and the Sea (with 16 paintings).Isabelle Lilias Trotter [1853-1928] was a noted watercolour artist, who having attended several of the Keswick Conventions, became a missionary in North Africa. She was one of the founder members of the Algier Mission Band, which, as the Biographical Dictionary of Christian Missions notes, “…became part of the North Africa Mission, which continues to the present day, now as Arab World Ministries.” [p.680]

This present volume contains 16 stunning pages of watercolours, which I have scanned in full-colour. My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of the book for digitisation. This title is in the public domain

I. Lilias Trotter, Between the Desert and the Sea (with 16 paintings). London & Edinburgh: Marshall, Morgan & Scott, Ltd., n.d. Hbk. pp.63. [Click to download complete book in PDF]


  • Foreword
  1. The Remains of the Pirate City
  2. Behind Blida
  3. Away West
  4. A Stronghold of Marabouts
  5. South by East
  6. A Town of Harlequins
  7. The Land of Palm Branches
  8. Moslem Mystics
  9. The Land of the Buried River
  10. Retrieval


It is stirring after an age-long sleep, this land framed in between the gold of the desert and the azure of the sea. Fifty years back it was hardly known except to the French officials and colonists who were bravely reducing it to order. Fifty years back again, and it was a Corsair State, living in medieval conditions.

Suddenly, since the war days closed, the surrounding lands have also awakened to the fact that it may have a future as well as a past. Tourists have realized that it is only twenty-eight hours from Marseilles, and the nearest viewpoint for an Eastern setting. Explorers have discovered that it is a rare starting-point for the penetration of the Sahara and its secrets. And the Church of Christ has begun to see that it is not an agglomeration of backward Moslem races, but a strategic centre.

So we ask you to come and look at it. The colour pages and the letterpress are with one and the same intent-to make you see. Many things begin with seeing in this world of ours. [Continue reading]

Henry Martyn of India and Persia by Jesse Page

Jesse Page, Henry Martyn of India and PersiaHenry Martyn [1781-1812] was an English missionary who served as a Chaplain to the East India Company. He is remembered for his translations of the Bible into Urdu and Farsi and for his courage, selflessness and commitment to Christ. The Henry Martyn Library established in his memory is now the Cambridge Centre For Christianity Worldwide. In this book, kindly provided for digitisation by Redcliffe College, the author laments that Martyn was not as well known [in the 1890’s when the book was written] than he deserved. He hoped that this biography would serve to correct that deficiency.

It is very likely that the book is now in the public domain, but I have been unable to establish a definitive date of death for Jesse Page. If anyone has further information about the rights, please contact me.

Jesse Page, Henry Martyn of India and Persia. London: Pickering & Inglis, [1930]. Hbk. pp.179. [Click to download complete book in PDF]


  1. The Young Cambridge Student
  2. The Choice Made
  3. Outward Bound
  4. India For Christ
  5. Facing the Enemy
  6. The Lonely Pilgrim
  7. Translating the Scriptures
  8. Farewell to India
  9. The Mission to Persia
  10. The Journey’s End
  11. The Man Himself
  12. Farewell


Strange it may seem, in an age when missionary interest is at flood-tide, and the heroisms of the field of God are being recognised on every hand, Henry Martyn is comparatively unknown.

On the horizon of the twentieth century he is dimly discerned, a luminous shadow far away, but felt to be that of one who was brave, and good, and suffering, who toiled his life away for others, and died in almost tragic solitude, friendless and alone. But distance weakens the true influence of a man, though it may glorify his memory; therefore, I have made the endeavour in the pages of this book to correct the focus of vision, and bring Henry Martyn, if possible, a little nearer to us in clear and vivid outline, instinct with reality and life.

His story shines with a glory not of this world. Its light is reflected from the Cross of Christ. [Continue reading]

Life and Explorations of David Livingstone

Anonymous, The Life and Explorations of David Livingstone, LL.D. Compiled from Reliable SourcesThis anonymous biography was published the year after David Livingstone’s death. It was intended to provide a condensed account of his life for young people and those unfamiliar with the Newspaper accounts and those published by the National Geographic Society.

My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing me with a copy of this book to scan. This title is in the public domain.

Anonymous, The Life and Explorations of David Livingstone, LL.D. Compiled from Reliable Sources. London: Adam & Company, [1874]. Hbk. pp.324.[Click to download complete book in PDF]


  • Preface
  1. Early years-Education-Arrival at Cape Town as a Missionary
  2. Arrives at Kuruman-Visits the Bechuana Tribes – Resolves to settle among the Bakwains – Marriage-Journeys to the Zouga River – The Bakwains attacked by the Boers
  3. The Kalahari Desert – Discovers Lake Ngami – Visits Sebituane – Death of Sebituane – Discovers the Zambesi
  4. Attack on Kolobeng by the Boers – Starts on his Great Journey
  5. Preparations for Departure – Ascends the Leeambye and the Leeba – Abundance of Animal Life – Two Female Chiefs – Visits Shinte
  6. Visits Katema’s Town – Is hospitably entertained – Lake Dilolo – Crosses the Quango, Cassaque – Arrival at Loanda
  7. Stay at Loanda – Starts on Return Journey – Dr. Livingstone again attacked with Fever – The Makololo suffer from Sickness – Descent of the Leeba and Leeambye – Arrival at Linyant
  8. Starts for the East Coast – The Victoria Falls – The Batoka Tribes – Reaches Zumbo, a deserted Portuguese Settlement
  9. Arrives in England – Enthusiastic Reception – Departs again for the Zambesi – Arrives at the Kongone Mouth of that River – Passes up the Zambesi
  10. Ascends the Shire – Friendly Natives – Discovers Lake Shirwa – Contact with Slave-hunters
  11. Starts for Linyanti – Cutting up an Elephant – The “Go-Naked” Tribe – The Victoria Falls – Finds Sekeletu ill
  12. Descends the Zambesi – Arrival of Bishop Mackenzie – Liberates a Band of Slaves – Death of Bishop Mackenzie-Arrival and Death of Mrs. Livingstone
  13. Dreadful Results of a Slave Raid – Dr. Livingstone recalled – Journey of Exploration beyond Lake Nyassa – Starts for Home – Arrival in England
  14. Starts a Third Time for Africa – His reported Murder – Expedition sent in search of him – Letters from himself – Again lost to view – Mr. H. M. Stanley finds him at Ujiji
  15. Dr. Livingstone as found by Mr. Stanley – Expedition to North End of Lake Tanganyika – Dr. Livingstone accompanies Mr. Stanley to Unyanyembe – Mr. Stanley’s Arrival in England – Sketch of his Life
  16. Letters of Dr. Livingstone – Incidents of Travel – The Slave Trade in Central Africa – Geographical Conclusions, etc.
  17. Sir Bartle Frere’s Mission – Expeditions sent to assist Dr. Livingstone – His Death – Some Account of his Family, etc.
  18. Account of Last Illness and Death of Dr. Livingstone – Public Funeral in Westminster Abbey, etc.

Works of Alpheus Paget Wilkes [1871-1934]

Alpheus Paget Wilkes [1871-1934]When working on a project as large as Missiology.org.uk is is easy to be distracted from the main task in hand and follow-up “rabbit-trails” as exciting material comes to hand. In this case of A. Paget Wilkes, one of the founders of the Japan Evangelist Band, however, I decided to follow the rabbit trail.

The reason for this is that so few of his many works are available on-line – The Internet Archive only hosting four of them. So, in addition to the books by Wilkes provided by Redcliffe College I have bought (from Book Aid) and scanned a number of others to form the basis of what I hope will eventually become a complete archive of Wilke’s books.

Click here to visit the Alphaeus Paget Willkes Bibliography

Christian Mission in Africa – The 1926 Le Zoute Missions Conference

Edwin W. Smith, The Christian Mission in Africa. A Study Based on the Work of the International Missionary Conference at Le Zoute, Belgium, September 14th to 21st, 1926Rather than produce the standard report of proceedings for the 1926 Missions Conference in Le Zoute, Belgium, Edwin Smith was asked to write his own summary. In doing so the organisers hoped that the resulting work would be more widely read than a dry record of the facts.

My thanks to Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for providing a copy of the book to scan and to the World Council of Churches for their kind permission to place it on-line.

Edwin W. Smith, The Christian Mission in Africa. A Study Based on the Work of the International Missionary Conference at Le Zoute, Belgium, September 14th to 21st, 1926. New York: The International Missionary Council, 1926. Hbk. pp.192. [Click to download the complete book in PDF]


  1. The New Africa
  2. Retrospect
  3. Facing the Facts
  4. The Conference
  5. Preaching the Gospel to Africans
  6. The African Church
  7. Education
  8. Towards a Healthy Africa
  9. Land and Labour in Africa
  10. Co-operation in and For Africa
  11. What it all Means to Us

Recommendations and Resolutions

Speeches and Papers

  • New Forces in Africa. T. Jesse Jones
  • Statement by Canon Anson Phelps Stokes
  • The Contact of Europe and Africa. Louis Franck
  • The Medical Task in Africa. Dr. Broden
  • Statement by Dr Louise Pearce
  • Progress in Africa. Sir Frederick Lugard
  • Black and WHite in South Africa. Professor MacMillan
  • Native Administration in th Transkei

Co-operation with Missionaries and Africans

  1. Statement by the Portuguese Minister in Belgium
  2. Statement by the Ex-Governor of the Belgium Congo
  3. The Relation of Christian Missions tot he New Forces that are Shaping Africa. J.H. Oldham

Devotional Addresses

  • Co-operation. Daniel Couve
  • The Heart of a Host. Father Callaway

Minutes of the Conference

List of Delegates and Consultative Members

Special Africa Number of ‘The International Review of Missions’