Women’s Missionary Work in India and China

Cover: Glimpses of Women's Missionary Work in India and China.

Written shortly after the Jubilee of the Baptist Missionary Society (1867-1917), this book aims to provide a series of snapshots of the work done by female Baptist missionaries. It is illustrated by six photographic plates from India and China.

My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of this public domain title for digitisation.

George Hawker [1857-1932], Open the Window Eastward. Glimpses of Women’s Missionary Work in India and China. London: The Carey Press, [1917]. Hbk. pp.170. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

  • Preface
  1. Pioneers
  2. Zenana Echoes
  3. Zenana Schools
  4. Women’s Influence
  5. Village Itineration
  6. Boat-Tours in the Beels
  7. “Going-a-Plaguing”
  8. Famine Relief Work
  9. “Doctor Sahiba”
  10. An Industrial Settlement (Salamatpur)
  11. Education: Dehli, Entally and Ballygunge
  12. India: Review and Outlook
  13. Country Work in Shantung
  14. Bessie Campbell and Her Biographer
  15. Certain Women and their Stories
  16. In the Days of the Second Revolution
  17. The New Opportunity

Chapter 2: Zenana Echoes

When our missionary sisters entered the grudgingly opened doors of the zenanas, they were constrained, more markedly in some districts than in others, to make haste slowly. In a speech delivered in London in 1881, when the Mission was just fourteen years old, the Rev. R. F. Guyton described the evolution of zenana work proper in the city of Delhi, the scene of his own memorable labours. At first our sisters could attempt little more than the establishing of friendly relations by means of conversation on general topics. Later they were able to give lessons in reading, writing and secular subjects. Then they taught lace-work and other, feminine employments, which provided new interests and relieved the monotony of seclusion; and finally, when confidence had been secured and minds opened, they were able to introduce the Scriptures and urge the claims of Christ.

Mr. Guyton was of opinion that this policy of patience was entirely justified, and that more precipitate evangelism would have resulted in exclusion. Since that time zenana doors have been opening ever more swiftly and widely, and if the missionary staff were immensely increased, the members of it and their native assistants would find more than enough to do of actual gospel work.

In reading this address of Mr. Guyton’s, and relating it to other records, one is driven to reflect upon the appalling amount of inane and trivial talk which must have afflicted our women missionaries, taxing their patience to the point of exhaustion, in those early days, and, indeed, all the way along. Of course small talk is not peculiar to any race or to either sex, and if the conversation of the world were stenographed for a single day, and the, volume of it appraised by some commissioned angel of adequate endurance, it is gravely doubtful whether the talk of women would be adjudged to be vainer or more wearisome than that of men. That men think lightly of women’s matters is irrelevant. The angel critic, superior to masculine limitations and unbiased by masculine conceit, would weigh with equal scales….

Pages19-20.

Missions of the CMS and CEZMS in the Punjab and Sindh by Robert Clark

Robert Clark [1825-1900]

Robert Clark was one of the first two missionaries from the Church Missionary Society to arrive in the Punjab and founded the CMS mission station at Amrtisar, the CMS Afghan Mission in Peshawar and the Kashmir Mission. He was therefore well qualified to write this history of the work in the region. My thanks to the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for making this public domain title available for digitisation.

Robert Clark [1825–1900], The Missions of the Church Missionary Society and the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society in the Punjab and Sindh. London: Church Missionary Society, 1904. Hbk. pp.280. [Click to visit the Robert Clark page for the download link for this title and others]

Contents

  • Prefatory Note
  1. Tthe Commencement of the Punjab Mission
  2. The Missionaries
  3. Statistics of the Society
  4. The Geographica; Position of the Mission Stations
  5. The People of the Punjab and Sindh
  6. The Creeds of the People of the Country
  7. Amritsar and its Institutions
  8. Batála
  9. Uddoké. The Story of the Late Rev. Pundit Khabak Singh
  10. Nárowál
  11. Anjála and Khutrain
  12. Bahrwál, Near Atárí
  13. The Tarán Táran Village Mission
  14. Jandiála
  15. The Clarkábád Agricultural Settlement
  16. Low Caste Converts and Apostasies
  17. Lahore
  18. Simla and Kotgarh
  19. Kangra
  20. Kashmír
  21. Pesháwar and Hazára
  22. The Deraját: Bannú, Dera Ismail Khán, and Tank
  23. The Belúch Mission
  24. Multán
  25. Quetta
  26. Karáachi
  27. Hyderabad
  28. Sukkur
  29. The Political Aspect of Missions
  30. Missions to Mohammedans
  31. Our Need of Chosen Agents
  32. Organisation
  33. Conclusion

Appendices

  1. Statistical Tables, 1873 to 1902
  2. Christian Literature Prepared by Members of the C.M.S. and the C.E.Z.M.S. in the Punjah and Sindh
  • Index

Lilian Mary Edward’s Work in India

Cover: Lilian Mary Edwards [1877-1945], A Welsh Woman's Work in India

Lilian Mary Edwards was the daughter of the Principal of the Baptist College in Cardiff. In this book she tells the story of her missionary service in India in order to encourage others in Wales [and beyond] to respond to the need there.

My thanks to Redcliffe College for making a copy of this public domain book available for digitisation.

Lilian Mary Edwards [1877-1945], A Welsh Woman’s Work in India. Caerphilly: Self-published, [1940]. Hbk. pp.98. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

Contents

  • Foreword
  1. The Call
  2. First Years in India
  3. Camping
  4. Zenana Visiting
  5. Women and Girls
  6. Festivals
  7. Temples
  8. Friends
  9. Daily Work in India
  10. Last Words

Chapter 1: The Call

In reviewing the lives of God’s children, we discover that they do not make their own lives, or choose their own paths. As Jeremiah writes, “It is not in man that walketh to direct his steps.” We assuredly know that our lives are in the hands of Another, and that they are intended to accomplish a purpose. We are to fit in with others “as stones fitly framed together groweth into a holy temple.” We cannot say with Henley the poet, in his “Invictus,” “I am master of my fate.”

My paternal grandfather would have rejoiced to know that his granddaughter had become a missionary. He was a farmer and monumental sculptor, living in a small village in Carmarthenshire. He kept himself well informed of missionary progress, by taking regularly the missionary magazine then issued. He not only kept himself well-informed but took care to impart the knowledge to others by reading the missionary news in the week-night meetings. In those days not everyone could read. He was so much venerated in that place that one is reminded of Job, as described “old men rose when they saw him, young men hid themselves and the princes refrained from speaking.” Not in his case the princes, but young men, if speaking or acting undesirably, saw my grandfather coming along, were heard to say in subdued tones, “Here’s John Edwards.” Prayer, inspired by the Holy Ghost, accomplishes God’s work. I became a missionary as the fulfilment of my mother’s prayer, realized twenty-five years after her death…

Page 1

Church of England Zenana Missions in India and Sri Lanka

A.D., Until the Shadows Flee Away. The Story of the C.E.Z.M.S. in India and Ceylon

The zenana missions were outreach programmes established in British India with the aim of converting women to Christianity. From the mid 19th century, they sent female missionaries into the homes of Indian women, including the private areas that male visitors were not allowed to see (zenana). Gradually these missions expanded from purely evangelical work to providing medical and education services. Hospitals and schools established by these missions are still active, making the zenana missions an important part of the history of Christianity in India.

“Zenana Missions”, Wikipedia

My thanks to the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for making this public domain book available for digitisation.

A.D., Until the Shadows Flee Away. The Story of the C.E.Z.M.S. in India and Ceylon. London: Church of England Zenana Missionary Society, n.d. Hbk. pp.247. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

Contents

Part 1: Outlines and Impressions

  1. India and its Peoples
  2. India Past and Present
  3. Religions of India
  4. Condition of India and its Women
  5. India’s Women at the Crossing of the Way
  6. Folk-lore
  7. “Little Kings”
  8. The Church of England Zenana Missionary Society

Part 2: The Story of Work Amongst the Women of India and Ceylon

  1. The Border-Lnd and Over
  2. Through the Sindh to the Sea
  3. The Land of the Five Rivers
  4. The Plain of the Ganges
  5. The Central Provinces
  6. In the Telugu Country
  7. Madras and the Plateau of Mysore
  8. The Blue Mountains and the Lords of the Hills
  9. The Sacred Hedge
  10. The Land of the Conch Shell
  11. The Shining Land
  • Afterword—As the Stars
  • Appendices

Robben Island. Thirty-Four Years of Ministry Amongst the Lepers of South Africa

Cover: James Wescott Fish [1852-1937], Robben Island. An Account of Thirty-Four Years' Gospel Work Amongst Lepers of South Africa.

Robben Island, located in Table Bay, South Africa, was used from the 17th Century on as a prison, an animal quarantine station and, from 1845, a Leper Colony. In this book James Wescott Fish records his lifetime of service amongst the lepers there.

My thanks to Redcliffe College for making a copy fo this public domain title available for digitisation.

James Wescott Fish [1852-1937], Robben Island. An Account of Thirty-Four Years’ Gospel Work Amongst Lepers of South Africa. Kilmarnock: John Ritchie, 1924. Hbk. pp.210. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

Contents

  • Introduction
  1. Foreword
  2. The Early History of Robben Island (by G.F. Gresley)
  3. The History of Leprosy
  4. Thirty-Four Years’ Work Amongst the Lepers (by James W. Fish)
  5. A Never-to-be-Forgotten Day
  6. Gospel Tent Work in South Africa
  7. Our First Visit to Robben Island
  8. Eight Days with the Lepers
  9. The Love of Christ Constraineth
  10. Gospel Work among the Soldiers During the Boer War
  11. A Visit to Pondoland
  12. Back to Robben Island
  13. Trophies of Grace among the Lepers
  14. “Lonely Hearts to Cherish”
  15. A Terrible Scourge
  16. Visits to the Transvaal
  17. Visitors to the Island
  18. “Faith Healers” at Robben Island
  19. “One Soweth, Another Reapeth”
  20. Home Again to England

Chapter 2. The Early History of Robben Island

Probably but few of the residents on the sea coast of Cape Colony, give more than an occasional passing thought to the little barren-looking patch of land, situated at the month of Table Bay, known as Robben Island, or the Isle of Seals. It is, however, an object of much interest to those who arrive for the first time in South Africa by the mail steamers. For who can be unmoved on first hearing of the inhabitants who are inmates of its various institutions – the Law-breakers, the Lunatics, and the Lepers.

Few places probably, so small and insignificant-looking, can boast of having played so important a part in the history of a vast multitude of people, as can this little island in the rise, progress, and present welfare of the Cape Colony. I make no apology, therefore, in calling the attention of the readers of my narrative to the Island’s early history. And I claim for it more than a momentary passing attention. I ask for a respectful and reverential regard. And I assert that it has a right to such, for the pages of South African history tell of strange events here in the far-off past, and the existence of ancient ruins on the island, recently brought to light, speak of busy scenes, and many hands at work, in days long gone by.

Pages 10-11.

With the Arabs in Tent and Town by Archibald Forder

Archibald Forder [1863-1934], With the Arabs in Tent and Town. An Account of Missionary Work, Life and Experiences in Moab and Edom and the First Missionary Journey into Arabia from the North, 3rd edn.

This is Archibald Forder’s own account of his work amongst the Bedouin people in Moab, Edom and Arabia. My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of this public domain title for digtisation.

Archibald Forder [1863-1934], With the Arabs in Tent and Town. An Account of Missionary Work, Life and Experiences in Moab and Edom and the First Missionary Journey into Arabia from the North, 3rd edn. London: Marshall Brothers, [1902]. Hbk. pp.241. [Click to visit the Archibald Forder page for the download link for this title]

Contents

  • Preface
  • Introduction
  1. Early Life and Leading
  2. Life and Work in Kerak
  3. From Moab to the Entrance into Arabia
  4. Leaving for the Jowf. To the Edge of the Desert
  5. From Orman to Kaf and Ithera
  6. What Happened at Ithera, and the Desert Journey to Jowf
  7. Arrival at the Jowf, with an Account of All that Befell Me There
  8. The Climax at the Jowf and Return to Jerusalem
  9. Danger and Deliverances
  10. Religion and Customs of the Arabs
  11. Discouragements Versus Encouragements and Otherwise

Chapter 1. Early Life and Leading

August, 1874, the quiet town of Salisbury, Wilts, was visited by the late Robert Moffat, the veteran pioneer of African missions. Hundreds flocked to hear the grand old man as he told out in simple boldness the remarkable story of his life and some of his thrilling experiences during his missionary career. Among others in that vast audience that evening was the writer, then a lad of eight years of age, who had been led by a boyish spirit of curiosity to attend the meeting. He was the son of godly parents, of that town, and was then but a schoolboy. One result of that gathering was, that the missionary fire was kindled in that lad’s heart never to be put out, although sometimes damped. Outwardly there was nothing that would even encourage the thought of ever becoming a missionary, but Psalm xxxvii, 4 and 5…

Pages 1-2.

New Book on the Serampore Mission

The Rev Dr Johnson Thomaskutty, my friend at Serampore College, India, has asked me to publicise a significant new book on Chrtistian mission in India, which I am happy to do.

Serampore Mission: Perspectives in Contexts

Serampore Mission: Perspectives in Contexts

Edited by Johnson Thomaskutty

The Serampore College—one of the historical institutions in India, founded by the initiatives of William Carey, Joshua Marshman, and William Ward in 1818—celebrated its bicentenary year in 2018. The Serampore College as a well established educational institution reached its current status by crossing several historical milestones and achieving national and international acclamations such as the Royal Charter of Incorporation (1827) and the confirmation of the Charter by the Bengal Government Act IV (1918).

In the current book, the biblical, historical, hermeneutical, theological, missional, ministerial, and contextual disciplines of the Serampore Mission movement are integrally analyzed from multiple perspectives. The contemporary outlook and significance of the movement are investigated in closer relationship with faith, scripture, and theology. As the nation of India advances as a global community, the book attempts to revisit and re-interpret the basic principles and strategies of the Serampore Mission from multiple vantage points.

Through the consultation, we ultimately attempted to revisit the Serampore Mission from a holistic perspective and to develop ideas for contemporary application. The Biblical and hermeneutical, linguistic and translational, theological and ethical, historical and ecumenical, dialogical and religious, ecological and contextual, and missional and ministerial aspects of the movement were examined with a key focus on their significance in today’s life-situation. It was also an attempt to fill the gap between the contexts of the Serampore Mission in its own Sitz im Leben and the contemporary realities of the twenty-first century CE with the help of hypothetical brainstorming and critical investigations.

The missionary movement in Serampore and in the extended Indian sub-continent under the leadership of William Carey, Joshua Marshman, and William Ward and the establishment of the Serampore College were key initiatives in the history of Christianity in India. The unique contributions of Hannah Marshman as a woman, who endeavored hard in the movement, enable us to think beyond the traditional boundaries of the “Trio” to the wider level of the “Quartet.” The mission’s contributions to the academic world, ecclesiastical contexts, and the society as a whole need to be acknowledged with high esteem and at the same time re-evaluated in order to derive new meanings for the twenty-first century missionary, ministerial, and academic exercises.

This book is an attempt to answer some of the significant questions such as: First, how do we understand the Christian identity in the contemporary socio-political and multi-religious context of India? Second, how can the missional and ministerial tasks of the church be integrated with the combined efforts of missiologists, biblical scholars, educators, historians, religious scholars and theologians? Third, what are the challenges we confront in India today to consider the missional, ministerial, and hermeneutical aspects with greater priority? Fourth, how significant is the Serampore Mission in the contemporary Indian context? How does it continue to influence the academic world, the Church, and the general public? And fifth, how do the contributions of the Serampore missionaries continue to influence Christian communities in their witness, mission, and evangelism? As we flip through the pages of the book, the above stated questions shall enable us to fathom the realities with a contemporary outlook.

The title Serampore Mission: Perspectives in Contexts requires some explanation. The usage “Serampore Mission” is an overarching expression to understand the contributions of the missionaries as biblical expositors, theologians of their own times, vernacular linguists and translators, educators with deep impression, ministerial and missional experts, botanists, liberators, social transformers, founders and administrators, editors and publishers, and the like. The virtue of versatility and multifaceted missional and ministerial strategies of the missionaries are explored here with vigor for further reflection and action. The usage of the term “Perspectives” enables the readers to fathom deep into how scholars from multiple vantage points deliberated their views concerning the contributions of the Serampore missionaries. Moreover, the authors of the essays are experts in different fields of studies and they reflect their views about the Serampore Mission with profundity and brilliance.

As the Serampore missionaries perceived the reality of God, human struggles, and the cosmic order from a transformative and liberative point of view, it is our task to conceptualize and systematize their contributions with a holistic outlook and a paradigmatic perception. In that way, we can transform our present struggles and future hopes based on the past axioms of the missionaries. The term “Contexts” is used with a broader spectrum of understanding in order to reconstruct the views from multi-religious, multi-cultural, multi-denominational, and multi-lingual contexts of the nation. The authors here represent diverse contexts and with multiple perspectives to invigorate the mission and ministry of the Serampore missionaries.

Publication details

Johnson Thomaskutty, ed., Serampore Mission: Perspective in Contexts. ISPCK, 2019. ISBN-10: 9388945069. ISBN-13: 978-9388945066. Pbk. pp.338.

Available from

Kingdom Without Borders A Missionary Survey

Thomas Moscrop [1860-1920], The Kingdom Without Frontiers. A Missionary Survey

An introduction to Christians Missions written on behalf of the Wesleyan Missionary Society. My thanks to the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for providing a copy of this public domain title for digitisation.

Thomas Moscrop [1860-1920], The Kingdom Without Frontiers. A Missionary Survey. London: Robert Culley, 1910. Hbk. pp.288. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

Contents

  • Preface
  1. The General Progress of the Enterprise
  2. The World-Outllook: The Present Position
  3. Special Signs of Success
  4. World-wide Social Results
  5. The Claiming of the Future
  6. Criticism and Testimony
  7. The Return-value of Missions
  8. Postponed and Neglected Enterprises
  9. Present Perils and Urgencies
  10. Special and Created Obligations
  11. Primary Motives and Obligations
  12. The Universal Epic

Preface

The purpose of this volume is to give such a statement of the facts of the foreign missionary enterprise, and such a survey of its operations, as will encourage those who support it to give themselves with greater zeal to ‘the furtherance of the gospel amongst non-Christian peoples. The writer, in the course of missionary advocacy, has been asked repeatedly-by enthusiastic supporters, by earnest seekers for knowledge, and by coldly critical people-to answer questions, the answers to which involved just such information as is here given; and he is assured by others having a similar experience that there is much in this work that is likely to meet the needs of those who want to know the facts.

The literature of Missions is now immense, and it is growing rapidly-this is, in itself, a proof of the growth of the enterprise-and it is obvious that much must be left out in a general work like this; but it is hoped that compression of facts will not have destroyed their living interest….

Page 7



Christianity and the Government of India

Arthur Innes Mayhew [1878-1948], Christianity and the Government of India

An important historical study of the relationships between the Government of India, that of Great Britain (and others), and Christian mission in India. My thanks to the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for providing a copy of this public domain title for digitisation.

Arthur Innes Mayhew [1878-1948], Christianity and the Government of India. An Examination of the Christian Forces at Work in the Administration of India and of the Mutual Relations of the British Government and Christian Missions 1600-1920. London: Faber & Gwyer Ltd., n.d. Hbk. pp.260. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

Contents

  • Preface
  1. Wilberforce and the Charter of 1793
  2. Schwartz, the East India Company and Other European Powers in India
  3. Public Opinion in Church and State at Home
  4. Carey and Serampore and the Government of Bengal
  5. Signs of Grace. The Company and Trusteeship
  6. The Vellore Mutiny and Reaction
  7. Final Triumph of Wilberforce
  8. Public Opinion at Home
  9. Bishop, Chaplains and Governors-General of India. Heber, Duff and Wilson
  10. Advance on Christian Lines. Bestinck ad Dalhousie
  11. Reactionary Influence
  12. Mission Influence on Education. Duff and Wilson
  13. Further Educational Problems
  14. The Mutiny in its Religious Aspect
  15. Harmonious Co-operation
  16. The Fruits of Co-operation
  • Epilogue: Things Present and to Come
  • Books Consulted

Chapter 1: Wilberforce and the Charter of 1793

England in 1793 was anxious and perplexed. With the Bank of England suspending payment, Jacobins at work on either side of the Channel, and ‘The Rights of Man1 ‘ spreading poison over the countryside, men’s hearts were failing them for fear. No one who knew William Carey would have dared to accuse him of despair. But when that ‘ consecrated cobbler ‘ and his co-mate in enthusiasm Thomas, late surgeon of the East India Company Fleet, watched from Plymouth Hoe the East Indiaman, which should have conveyed them and their Bibles to Bengal, hull down on the horizon, there can have been few more troubled minds in that troublous year. For Captain Smyth, who had yielded so far to the persuasive tongue of Thomas as to smuggle them on board at Gravesend, had capitulated at Plymouth to the stronger coercion of a pseudonymous letter. To embark a passenger for John Company’s domain in India without a licence from that Company involved on discovery alarming penalties. But unlicensed passengers who were also ‘missionaries and schoolmasters ‘! It was as much as his place was worth….

Page 21

Life of George Borrow and the Bible in Spain

George Borrow [1803–1881]

George Borrow, a Norfolk man, served with the British and Foreign Bible Society. His first posting was to Russia in 1833, where he oversaw the printing of a Manchu New Testament and then to Portugal and Spain (1835-1840) as a colporteur. In his native Norfolk he spent much of his time among the Romanies, so it was natural that he should seek these people out in Spain also. He learnt their language sufficiently to compile a Romani-English Dictionary and to translate the Gospel of Luke into it. He wrote of his adventures on the Iberian Peninsula in The Bible in Spain (1843).

Visit the George Borrow page for the download links to his Biography by Herbert Jenkins and to The Bible in Spain.

Copies of these public domain works were kindly provided by Redcliffe College and Book Aid respectively.

Preface

During the whole of Borrow’s manhood there was probably only one period when he was unquestionably happy in his work and content with his surroundings. He may almost be said to have concentrated into the seven years (1833-1840) that he was employed by the British and Foreign Bible Society in Russia, Portugal and Spain, a lifetime’s energy and resource. From an unknown hackwriter, who hawked about unsaleable translations of Welsh and Danish bards, a travelling tinker and a vagabond Ulysses, he became a person of considerable importance. His name was acclaimed with praise and enthusiasm at Bible meetings from one end of the country to the other. He developed an astonishing aptitude for affairs, a tireless energy, and a diplomatic resourcefulness that aroused silent wonder in . those who had hitherto regarded him as a failure. His illegal imprisonment in Madrid nearly brought about a diplomatic rupture between Great Britain and Spain, and later his missionary work in the Peninsula was referred to by Sir Robert Peel in the House of Commons as an instance of what could be achieved by courage and determination in the face of great difficulties.

Page ix