Twelve Mighty Missionaries by Esthme Ethelind Enock [1874-1947]

Esthme Ethelind Enock [1874-1947], Twelve Mighty MissionariesEsthme Enock’s biographical sketches of 12 famous missionaries has just entered the public domain. This copy was kindly provided by Book Aid for digitisation.

In the table of contents below I have linked to the bibligraphy pages on, where you will find further material on each missionary.

Esthme Ethelind Enock [1874-1947], Twelve Mighty Missionaries. London: Pickering & Inglis, Ltd., 1936. Hbk. pp.95. [Click to visit the download page]


  1. Pastor Hsi, China
  2. James Chalmers, New Guinea
  3. Alexander Mackay, Uganda
  4. Anthony Norris Groves, India
  5. Alexander Duff, India
  6. John Williams, Erromanga
  7. Samuel Marsden, Maoriland
  8. Samuel Pollard, China
  9. Hudson Taylor, China
  10. C.T. Studd, Central Africa
  11. Dan Crawford, Central Africa
  12. Dr Richard Williams, Tierra Del Fuego

Chapter 1. Pastor Hsi, China

The exact date of Pastor Hsi’s birthday does not seem to be recorded, but he was born probably in the Autumn of 1836. Till he was seven years old the little Hsi lived the usual free life of the son of a Chinese scholar, and was encouraged in every way to be overbearing and self-willed. Then he was sent to school, a school where a shrine of Confucius occupied the place of honour. Here the boy begins the studies which, it is hoped, will make him a “Princely Man.”

But, favourable though circumstances are, they do not satisfy the heart of this boy. At the early age of eight years, as he wandered through the incense-filled Temple and gazed at the hideous idols and vivid representations of punishments and terrors beyond the grave, he would ask himself, what was the use of living. “Men find no good, and in the end—?” he said to himself….

Missions in India from AD 193-1893 by George Smith

George Smith [1833-1919], The Conversion of India. From Pantaenus to the Present Day. A.D. 193-1893George Smith sets out to provide a history of Christian Missions in India from the time of Pantaenus (one of the leading lights of the Catechetical school of Alexandria who died c.200 AD) up to his own time. My thanks to the Cambridge Centre For Christianity Worldwide for providing me with a copy to digitise. This title is in the public domain.

George Smith [1833-1919], The Conversion of India. From Pantaenus to the Present Day. A.D. 193-1893. New York: Young People’s Missionary Movement, 1893. Hbk. pp.258. [Click to download complete title in PDF]


  • Preface
  1. Introduction
  2. The Greek Attempt
  3. The Roman Attempt
  4. Francis Xavier and His Successors – The Dutch Attempt
  5. The British East India Company’s Work of Preparation
  6. Great Britain’s Attempt
  7. The United States of America’s Co-operation
  8. The Methods of the Evangelical Mission to India
  9. The Results of Christian Missions to India
  10. The Prospects of the Conversion of India
  11. Intercession and Thanksgiving
  • Appendix
  • Index


The first of the Churches of the Reformation to become missionary was that of the Netherlelands. The Dutch colony of New Netherlands, in North America, lasted from the year 1609 to 1664. In 1628 the first congregation was organised on Manhattan Island, now New York. That was the earliest to work among the Red Indians. The organization which is now known as the Reformed Church in America, has furthermore established one of the most remarkable missions in British India, the Arcot Mission. In 1888 one of the elders of that Church, Mr. Nathan F. Graves, of Syracuse, N. Y., wrote to the late L. W. V. B. Mabon, D.D., Professor in its Theological Seminary, New Brunswick, N. J.: “I understand there is no Seminary or Professorship of Missions in the United States.” [Continue reading]

Life of Alexander Duff by George Smith

George Smith [1833-1919], The Life of Alexander DuffThis is the third and slightly abridged edition of George Smith’s 1879 biography of Alexander Duff, missionary to India. My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of the book for scanning. This title is in the public domain.

George Smith [1833-1919], The Life of Alexander Duff, 3rd edn., Revised and Abridged. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1899. Hbk. pp. 385. [Click to download the complete book in PDF]


  • Preface
  1. The Boy and the Student
  2. The First Missionary of the Church of Scotland
  3. The Two Shipwrecks
  4. Calcutta as it Was
  5. The Mine Prepared
  6. The First Explosion and the Four Converts
  7. The Renascence in India – The English Language and the Church
  8. The Renascence in India – Science and Letters
  9. Work for Europeans, Eurasians, and Native Christians
  10. The Invalid and the Orator
  11. Dr. Duff Organising
  12. Fishers of Men
  13. Egypt – Sinai – Bambay – Madras
  14. The College and its Spiritual Fruit
  15. Missionary of the Free Church of Scotland
  16. Continuity of the Work
  17. Lord Harding’s Administration – THe “Calcutta Review”
  18. Tour Through South India – Home
  19. Dr. Duff Organising Again
  20. Moderator of the General Assembly – Before the Lords’ India Committee
  21. In America – Second Farewell to Christendom
  22. The Mutiny and the Native Church of India
  23. Last Days in India
  24. In South-East Africa – THe Missionary Propaganda
  25. New Missions and the Results of Half a Century’s Work
  26. Dr. Duff at Home
  27. Ecclesiastical
  28. Dying
  • Index

Chapter I. 1806-1829. The Boy and the Student

The spiritual ancestry of Alexander Duff it is not difficult to trace to Charles Simeon. Heredity, even on its physical side, is a mystery which modern science has as yet failed to explain. Much more difficult is it to discover all that is comprehended in the influences through which the character receives its motive power and peculiar colouring. It was the remark of Duff himself, when, in the fulness of his fame, he congratulated a young friend on a firstborn son, that in nothing is the sovereignty of God so clearly seen as in the birth of a child; the fact, the sex, the circumstances, the bent. To be at all is much; to be this rather than that is, to the individual, more: but to be the subject and the channel of a divine force such as has made the men who have reformed the world, in the days from the apostles to the greatest modern missionaries, is so very much more, that we may well look m every case for the signs which lie about their infancy. [Continue reading]

Alexander Duff – Self Lost in Service

Alexander Duff Watson, Self Lost in Service. Alexander Duff of India

A biography of the noted missionary to India Alexander Duff written by his Grandson. My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing me with a copy of this book to scan. This title is in the public domain.

Alexander Duff Watson, Self Lost in Service. Alexander Duff of India. London & New York: Marshall Brothers Ltd., 1926. Hbk. pp.141. [Click to download complete book in PDF]


  • Note
  1. Getting Ready
  2. Under Weigh
  3. Standing Alone
  4. The Leaven Working
  5. Busy Rest
  6. At the Front Again
  7. The Disruption
  8. Hinduism in Danger
  9. Rousing the Church
  10. The Indian Mutiny
  11. Farewell to India
  12. A Supreme Sorrow
  13. At the Helm
  14. A Bright Sunset


In the preparation of this work the author, about three months before his death, condensed and thoroughly revised the large amount of material he had originally had available. His intention was not to enter in any way into competition with the elaborate biographies of Dr Duff belonging to an earlier period, but to supply a crisp and vivid life-sketch having a wide general appeal. For this task he was specially equipped owing to the frequent intercourse he had enjoyed with his grandfather both at home and when travelling, and also because of his own life-long deep interest in and knowledge of Mission enterprise. Of help received in completing the work since the death of Mr Duff Watson grateful acknowledgment is hereby made to Mr Alexander MacKilligan, Aberdeen. [Continue Reading]

Alexander Duff Pioneer of Missionary Education

William Paton [1886-1943], Alexander Duff. Pioneer of Missionary EducationWilliam Paton’s 1928 biography of Alexander Duff focuses on his work as a missionary educationalist in India. My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of this book for digitisation. This book is in the public domain.

William Paton [1886-1943], Alexander Duff. Pioneer of Missionary Education. London: Student Christian Movement, 1923. Hbk. pp.240. [Click to download complete book in PDF]


  • Author’s Preface
  1. Introductory
  2. Boyhood
  3. St. Andrews Under Chalmers: The Missionary Movement
  4. India – The Choice of a Method
  5. How the Method Worked
  6. A New Educational Policy for India
  7. Back in Scotland
  8. A Growing Work
  9. The Disruption of the Scottish Church
  10. A Diversity of Labours
  11. Scotland, America, and Indian Reform
  12. The Mutiny – Farewell to India
  13. Last Years
  14. The Christian Educationalist
  15. The Man Himself
  • Index

Author’s Preface

Some apology is needed for the appearance of a new sketch of the life of Alexander Duff, especially as the present writer cannot lay claim to any special sources of information which were not available when the earlier biographies were written. The reader will not find in this book fresh light on Duff, except in so far as the course of events in itself proves a man’s work and makes clear its strength and weakness. It is, however, precisely for this reason that such a new attempt to estimate this famous missionary’s life and personality may be considered not untimely. To those who are interested in Indian affairs it is a familiar fact that the whole system of education is in the melting-pot, and this is at least as true of Christian education as of the wider national system. [Continue reading]

Biography of Alexander Duff, Missionary to India

Thomas Smith [1817-1906], Alexander Duff, D.D., LL.D.This is a copy of the Thomas Smith’s 1883 biography of the the noted missionary to India, Alexander Duff [1806-1878]. As the author points out, he had both an intimate knowledge of his subject and the co-operation of Duff’s official biographer Mr George Smith. My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing me with a copy of this book to scan. This title is in the public domain.

Thomas Smith [1817-1906], Alexander Duff, D.D., LL.D. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1883. Hbk. pp.200. [Click to download complete book in PDF]

Chapter 1

In one important respect this volume differs from those which have hitherto appeared in the series to which it belongs. They had as their object the revival of memories which had faded; this, the perpetuation of a memory which is still fresh in the minds of many who will read it. They treated of “men worth remembering,” with whom their several authors had no personal associations; this treats of one who very lately lived and moved and had his being among us, and the memory of whose intimate personal friendship, long enjoyed, is to the author a very precious treasure. This difference is certainly in some respects advantageous, in others it will probably prove to be disadvantageous, to the author. It is, of course, an advantage to a biographer to have had an intimate knowledge of him whose doings he is to record, and whose character he is to delineate and estimate. [Continue reading]

Yarns on Heroes of India

J. Claverdon Wood, Yarns on Heroes of India, 5th edn.Yarns on India is a collection of inspiration talks intended for 12-16 year old boys attending Boys’ Brigade meetings. It includes material on William, Carey Alexander Duff, Theordore Pennell and number of other missionaries. My thanks to Redcliffe College for making a copy o this book available for scanning and to the Church Mission Society for their kind permission to place it on-line.

J. Claverdon Wood, Yarns on Heroes of India, 5th edn. London: Church Missionary Society, 1922. Pbk. pp.95. [Click to download complete book in PDF]


  • Foreword
  • Map of India
  1. Given to the Flames – William Carey
  2. Cast Up by the Sea – Alexander Duff
  3. A Massacre That Made a Man Think – Shekh Salih
  4. Cursed by a Brahman – Subrahmaniam
  5. A Mountain Tiger in His Den – Theodore Pennell
  6. A Fight With Death – Emilie Posnett
  7. Making Men Out of Jellyfish – Tyndale-Biscoe
  8. The Wolf of Attock – Dilawur Khan
  9. A Soldier of Nepal – “Nepali”


“YARNS ON HEROES OF INDIA” is the third of a series of text-books prepared for those who work among boys aged twelve to sixteen. It is thus specially suitable for Boys’ Brigade Officers and Scoutmasters. It is written in the belief that stories of missionary adventure appeal to the instincts of hero worship and space hunger, which develop in a boy at this age, and will not only create missionary interest, but will also have a powerful influence in the development of Christian character. Such stories represent Christianity in action, and often show the meaning of Bible truths even better than direct lessons on the Bible itself.

The Yarns themselves are historically true. The realistic detail and local colour give accurate setting without doing violence to the essential facts. [Continue reading]