Future of Africa: A Missions Textbook by Donald Fraser

Religions of Africa, circa 1911
Religions of Africa, circa 1911

This text-book is the fifth in a series of textbooks issued conjointly by the leading rnissionary societies in Great Britain for the use of Study Circles. Like its predecessors, “The Uplift of China,” “The Desire of India,” “The Reproach of Islam,” and “The Decisive Hour of Christian Missions,” the book has been written and edited with its special purpose in view. It is designed primarily for the use of those who study it chapter by chapter and meet periodically in Study Circles for discussion.

Editorial Note, page iii.

Donald Fraser, noted missionary to Malawi, discusses mission work among the pagan races of Central and South Africa. My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of this public domain title for digitisation.

Donald Fraser [1870-1933], The Future of Africa. London: United Council for Missionary Education, [1911]. Hbk. pp.293. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

Contents

  • Editorial Note
  • Author’s Preface
  1. Early Discovery
  2. The Opening Up of Pagan Africa
  3. The Hand of Europe in Africa
  4. The Conditions Revealed
  5. The Hand of the Church in Africa
  6. Results of Mission Work
  7. The Needs of Pagan Africa
  8. The Church’s Task
  • Appendices
  • Bibliography
  • Index

Chapter 1: Early Discovery

From time immemorial Africa has held its fascination or the hum.an race. Greece embodied Africa in myth; Rome sent her legions thither in lust of conquest; Gaul sent her traders in search of barter and commerce; in North Africa there were reared some of the earliest leaders and saints of the Christian Church. Looking down the early centuries we search vainly, however, for further records of Africa than dim hints of futile attempts to cross her sealed threshold The spent waves of past humanity seem but to have swept to her edge, and then to have broken and retreated with the tide.

If we turn from yesterday to to-day, what have we? Africa-but yesterday chiefly a name and a by-word, to-day assuming rank as a great world force, covered with an advancing network of civilisation, a region of illimitable possibilities. The causes that have furthered this development, the purpose that underlies it, the responsibility the Christian world bears towards its furtherance, such questions constitute the theme of this book.
Africa of to-day presents a complex picture. In area, a “vast ill-formed triangle,” the continent covers eleven and a half million miles in space. Each side of the triangle is pierced by a mighty river; on the north the Nile, on the west the Congo, on the east the Zambesi. An African traveller has roughly classified the great continent thus: North Africa where men go for health, South Africa where they go for wealth, Central Africa where, they go for adventure. Its population of about one hundred and sixty millions seems enormous. Yet, in comparison to the area it is small, and computed at fifteen to the square mile. Its races are innumerable; its dialects a vast confusion. The climate of Africa is modified by its elevation above the sea-level, but two-thirds of the continent lies within the tropics. The religions of Africa may be unequally divided under three heads: Christianity, Mohammedanism, and Paganism. Africa’s territorial divisions are, in the main, a matter of recent history. Eight million square miles of its area are partitioned amongst the various European powers.

To Britain the appeal of Africa is specially strong. Pioneers, missionaries, traders, travellers, soldiers, civil servants, serried rank upon serried rank have flowed out from this tiny island kingdom, many of them to live and die for that far country. For all types of men, Africa holds an abiding fascination. The student, the trader, the hunter, the philanthropist, firstly and lastly the evangelist, each and all have felt it, and in each case it differs. The riddle of the human race, its origin and development, the greed of gain, the desire for sport and adventure, the love of fellowmen, the sense of the mysterious awful responsibility of millions of souls still ignorant of Christ. All this is embodied in Africa and has its significance for the readers of her story….

Pages 1-4.

Robert and Louisa Stewart, Missionaries to China

Mary E. Watson, Robert and Louisa Watson. In Life and Death.

Robert & Louisa Stewart served in China’s Fujian province with the Church Missionary Society (C.M.S.), where they developed a number of innovative evangelistic techniques.

… Using Christian materials as a major part of the curriculum in day schools for boys and girls, education became their major means for establishing indigenous churches. The employment of single women missionaries to open many inland stations was another distinctive strategy. In addition, Louisa was a pioneer in training mature Christian women to become indigenous missionaries called “Bible women.” Convinced that illiterate women could be taught to read more quickly through a romanized colloquial text. Louisa was also a major figure in the translation and publication of the romanized New Testament in the Fuzhou dialect.

Lauren Pfister, “Stewart, Louisa,” Evangelical Dictionary of World Missions, page.908

My thanks to Redcliffe College for making a copy of this public domain title available for digitisation.

Mary E. Watson, Robert and Louisa Stewart. In Life and Death. London: Marshall Brothers, 1895. Hbk. pp.243. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

Contents

  • Preface
  1. Some Reminiscences of Robert Stewart
  2. Ambassadors For Christ
  3. The Whirlwind
  4. The Joyful Sound
  5. Native Boys and Girls at School
  6. Christ Magnified
  7. “Possessions”
  8. Hands Clasped
  9. Strong Consolation
  10. “Called, and Chosen, and Faithful

Chapter 2: Ambassadors For Christ

Various proposals have been made as to writing a Life of Robert and Louisa Stewart; but they have all been declined.

Lives so truly lived in secret with God are not easy to record. And even if the attempt were successfully made, is there not a danger of exalting the human and losing sight of the fact that ” all things are of God?”

It has been thought, therefore, that it is sufficient for God’s glory, to print some letters lately received, and supply a few details of the earlier times. Their letters were not kept, at Mr. Stewart’s earnest request.

Feeling that anything too personal would have been repugnant to the feelings of our dear brother and sister, we refrain from writing their biographies; but we know their wish would be that we should write and print anything that would awaken love and sympathy for China and the Chinese-anything that would show the friends who have helped through prayer and by their gifts that the need now is not less, but greater. Their voices seem to plead with us from the glory, “Fill up the ranks.” Who will be baptized for the dead?

They went out to Foochow in September, 1876, just after their marriage.
Learning the language was of course the first work.

Then Mr. Stewart was given charge of the school for native catechists belonging to the Church Missionary Society.

Mrs. Stewart, after a time, opened a school to train native Bible-women.
The money to build it was given by personal friends.

Then came the pressing need of English ladies to teach and superintend their Chinese sisters.

After eight years abroad Mr. and Mrs. Stewart came home, and the matter was taken up by the C.E.Z.M.S., who agreed to send ladies to China, arranging that the funds for India and China should be kept separate.

The all-absorbing thought was, “How can the Gospel be preached to this generation of the Chinese?” And visions rose of devoted English ladies residing in every one of the many cities of the Fuhkien province, superintending hundreds of native Bible-women.

Pages 17-18.

Story of the Police Court Mission 1876-1926

John Hasloch Potter [1847-1935], In As Much. The Story of the Police Court Mission 1876—1926

The Police Court Mission was a forerunner of the UK Probation Service that was founded in 1907, but its importance is often overlooked. I was very pleased to find a copy of this rare and significant book recently at Book Aid and am endeavouring to ensure that the hard copy finds a safe home in a Bible College library within the UK.

Follow the link below to visit the Police Court Mission page, where you will find a download link for this book and a helpful article which explains the mission’s significance.

John Hasloch Potter [1847-1935], In As Much. The Story of the Police Court Mission 1876—1926. London: Williams & Norgate, Ltd., 1927. Hbk. pp.136. [This title is in the public domain]

Contents

  • Foreword
  • Apologia
  • Preface
  1. The C.E.T.S.
  2. The Birth of the Mission
  3. The First Offenders Act
  4. Changed Conditions—The Boy
  5. The Boy
  6. Juvenile Courts
  7. Boys’ Shelter Home
  8. Girls
  9. Women’s Work
  10. Separation Orders
  11. Separation Orders—continued
  12. General Work
  13. Robert Holmes’ Experiences
  14. Odds and Ends
  15. Magnetic Influence
  16. Results
  17. Ways of Helping
  • Note on the American Probation System

Robert Morrison – A Master Builder by Marshall Broomhall

Marshall Broomhall [1866-1937], Robert Morrison, A Master Builder

A biography of the Presbyterian Missionary to Macao, Bible translator and Lexicographer Robert Morrison by the Editorial Secretary of the China Inland Mission. My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of this public domain title for digitisation.

Marshall Broomhall [1866-1937], Robert Morrison, A Master Builder. London: China Inland Mission, 1924. Hbk. pp.238. [Click to visit the Robert Morrison page for the download link for this title and others]

Contents

  • Author’s Preface
  • Table of Dates
  1. The Great Closed Land
  2. A Great Tribulation and a Little Child
  3. The Hidden Man of the Heart
  4. High Employ
  5. The Call of China
  6. The Voyage
  7. Old Canyon
  8. Facing Life’s Task
  9. Some Momentous Decisions
  10. Overlapping Extraordinary
  11. A Colleague at Last
  12. The Ultra-Ganges Mission
  13. Dismissed but Indispensible
  14. Lonely and in Constant Apprehension
  15. An Iona in the East
  16. Translating the Scriptures
  17. Sorrow Upon Sorrow
  18. An International Impasse
  19. The Great Fire
  20. After Fifteen Years
  21. Two Years in England
  22. In Stress and Storm
  23. All Manner of Service
  24. Missionary Reinforcement
  25. A Painful Parting
  26. Faithful unto Death
  27. Unfading Glory
  28. Epilogue
  29. Appendices
  30. Index

Author’s Preface

“The pioneer is forgotten” wrote Robert Morrison in a fit of depression. To him in his lonely post it seemed so, but the statement is not true for all time. The pioneer, like the prophet, may be despised or even slain by his contemporaries, but posterity will build his tomb. In Morrison’s case he lived to be honoured beyond most missionaries, and time has only added lustre to his name.

It is fitting that his life and work should be again recalled, for a new and promising chapter in the evangelization of China has commenced. The Christian Church which Morrison set forth to found in the land of Sinim has lately claimed the right to administer her own affairs where able to do so. The great gulf between a land with no followers of Christ – we speak of the Protestant Church alone – and a land with a Church strong enough to desire self-government, has, thank God, been bridged. On the one side of that great span stands Morrison, the dauntless master-builder, and on the other side the first National Christian Conference which met at Shanghai less than two years ago.

Page ix

Press Release: Operation Mobilisation Archive

Operation Mobilisation: Logos II

International missions archive to move to Leuven

On 19 October in Leuven, Belgium, Operation Mobilisation International (OM) will formally signify the transfer of the organisation’s records to EVADOC, Belgium’s archive for Protestantism and Evangelicalism. The archive will include sixty years of material which covers Bible smuggling into Soviet Russia, shipwreck, overland passage to India, mountain adventures in the Himalayas, and the growth of a movement estimated to have touched the lives of nearly one billion people worldwide. Linked with KADOC-KU Leuven, Catholic University of Leuven, Evadoc is a leading research unit in the history of evangelicalism and protestantism in the Low Countries. Evadoc’s first task will be to catalogue the materials. OM’s formal declaration of the transfer of its archives will take place at Evadoc’s 10 year anniversary Study and Meeting day, at the Evangelical Theological Faculty, Sint-Jansbergsesteenweg 95-97, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
 
Aaldert Prins, spokesman for EVADOC, said today: “The OM archive is one of the greatest treasures of the modern protestant missionary movement. I am delighted that OM has chosen to entrust its records to EVADOC.”
 
George Verwer, founder of Operation Mobilisation, said today “Dr. Louis Palau said the story of OM is ‘one of the most thrilling, visionary, motivating stories in the history of Christian missions’. More than 100,000 young and older people have now served with this movement – often among the least reached peoples on earth. It’s their written reports and stories that have shaped OM’s legacy. That’s why today I’m thankful to EVADOC for this significant step we have taken together to conserve our history. As OM’s archives move to Leuven and become more widely available for historical missions research, my prayer is that many will be encouraged to believe God for even greater things than OM’s early pioneers could ever have imagined!” Dr. George Verwer, founder of Operation Mobilisation

OM was founded by three young students, still in their teens, in 1957, who took a Dodge truck full of Christian literature down to Mexico from Moody Bible Institute, Chicago. In 1960 the mission organisation, then called Send The Light (STL), began to work in Europe, opening a Christian book store in Spain despite religious restrictions imposed by General Franco. The pioneer workers went on to smuggle Bibles and Christian literature into Soviet Russia and Eastern Europe. Shortly afterwards the organisation was renamed Operation Mobilisation. During the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, OM teams travelled overland from Zaventem, Belgium, to the Middle East, North Africa and the Indian sub-continent.
 
In 1971 OM launched its first ship, Logos. This was followed in 1977 by the Doulos, then the world’s oldest still operating passenger vessel and largest floating book-shop. In 1988 the Logos sank off the coast of Argentina, resulting in the dramatic rescue of all on board. Within a year, Logos was replaced with Logos II, and in 2009 Logos II was replaced by a much larger ship, Logos Hope. OM ships have visited 483 different ports in more than 150 countries around the world. 48 million visitors have come on board. 
 
From 1989 to 2001, OM’s Love Europe programme saw more than 30,000 young people travel to cities and rural areas ranging from Lisbon to Moscow and Oslo to Istanbul to share a message of hope and love through, music, art, dance, the printed word and intercultural contact.
 
OM Belgium celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2015 and OM international its 60th anniversary in 2017. EVADOC is therefore delighted to participate in conserving the heritage of this significant international mission organisation.
 
Further information on OM is available at www.om.org.

ENDS

For further media information and interviews, please contact Martin Turner, national director of OM, Belgium, at [email protected], or on +447753683337 (English, French and Dutch)

Notes for editors:

1 EVADOC vzw is the Protestant-Evangelical Archive and Documentation Centre for Belgium and works closely with KADOC-KU Leuven, Catholic University of Leuven.

2 Operation Mobilisation (OM) is an international Christian missions organisation, separately registered in the USA, UK, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, and most other countries in which it operates. In Belgium, OM is based at Fabrieksstraat 63, 1930 Zaventem, and registered as Operatie Mobilisatie vzw, Opération Mobilisation asbl.

General contact with OM in Belgium is be via [email protected]

Visit to All Nations Christian College

Yesterday I had another chance to visit All Nations Christian College in Hertfordshire. Easneye Mansion was formerly the country home of the Buxton Family, and was designed the same architect as the National History Museum in Kensington. It now houses the largest specialist missiological library in Europe, with over 50,000 books and several hundred journals, some of which are very rare. Set within the grounds of a wooded estate it looks like a wonderful place to prepare for missionary work.

With more and more students wanting to study remotely the challenge the College faces is to make as many of the resources in the library as possible available online – which was the reason for my being invited. My thanks to the faculty and support staff for making this such a worthwhile visit.

You can read my interview with Dr Mark Galpin, All Nation’s head of postgraduate studies, here.

Christian Missions and Social Progress: A Sociology of Missions

James S. Dennis [1842-1914], Christian Missions and Social Progress. A Sociological Study of Foreign Missions, 3 Vols.

James S. Dennis’s seven Lectures on the Sociology of Christian Mission are notable for both their detail (they run to 1,629 pages!) and the huge number of photographs included in each volume. This presented some difficulties for digitisation and the file sizes of the downloads and larger than usual as a result.

My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a set of these public domain books for digitisation.

James S. Dennis [1842-1914], Christian Missions and Social Progress. A Sociological Study of Foreign Missions, 3 Vols. Edinburgh & London: Oliphant Anderson & Ferrier, 1899. Hbk. pp.468+486+675. [Click here to visit the download page for these volumes]

Contents

Volume 1

  • Lecture 1: The Sociological Scope of Christian Missions
  • Lecture 2: The Social Evils of the Non-Christian World
  • Lecture 3: Ineffectual Remedies and the Causes of Their Failure
  • Lecture 4: Christianity the Social Hope of the Nations

Volume 2

  • Lecture 5: The Dawn of a Sociological Era in Missions
  • Lecture 6: The Contribution of Christian Missions toi Social Progress

Volume 3

  • Lecture 6: The Contribution of Christian Missions to Social Progress (continued)

Preface to Volume 1

The Students’ Lectures on Missions at Princeton Theological Seminary, which form the basis of the book now issued, were delivered by the author in the spring of 1896. The subject treated-” The Sociological Aspects of Foreign Missions “- was suggested to him by the students themselves, especially by members of the Sociological Institute and of the Missionary Society of the Seminary, with the special request that it be chosen for consideration. It has proved an absorbing and fruitful theme. The interest which it elicited was shown by requests from the faculties of Auburn, Lane, and Western Theological Seminaries to have the course repeated at those institutions after its delivery at Princeton. The lectures were limited to an hour each, but in preparing them for publication they have been recast, for the most part rewritten, and greatly expanded. This is especially true of the second lecture, and will be so in the case of the sixth, which will appear in the second volume…

p.vii

Oxford Centre for Mission Studies Library

SS Philip and James Parish Church
SS Philip and James Parish Church. Source: OCMS Website.

This morning I took a short break from the BETH Conference to visit the Oxford Centre for Mission Studies, which is only 5 minutes walk from Wycliffe Hall in the former St Philips and St James Church on Woodstock Road. The Centre has a library of over 18,000 missions books and journals, which focuses “… on the Two-Thirds World (Africa, Asia, Oceania, Latin America) and cover both the Humanities (Theology, Biblical studies, Religious studies) and the Social Sciences (Anthropology, International Development, Diaspora/Refugee Studies, Research Methods).” [Source]

Library of the Oxford Centre for Mission Studies,taken from the upper gallery
Library of the Oxford Centre for Mission Studies,taken from the upper gallery

Despite the size of the church it is crammed with bookcases, which surround the study carrels.

Library of the Oxford Centre for Mission Studies,taken from the upper gallery
Library of the Oxford Centre for Mission Studies,taken from the upper gallery
Library of the Oxford Centre for Mission Studies
Library of the Oxford Centre for Mission Studies
Library of the Oxford Centre for Mission Studies
Library of the Oxford Centre for Mission Studies

If you are a serious student of Christian Missions then this library should certainly be on your list of places to visit.

From Japan to Jerusalem by Bishop Graham Ingram

E. Graham Ingram [1851-1926], From Japan to Jerusalem

Graham Ingram, the former bishop of Sierra Leone, was the Home Secretary on the Church Mission Society. In this book he records his eight months of travel during 1909-1910 to CMS mission stations across Japan, China, Israel anf Egypt.

A copy of this handsome and well illustrated public domain volume was kindly provided by Redcliffe College for digtisation.

E. Graham Ingram [1851-1926], From Japan to Jerusalem. London: Church Missionary Society, 1911. Hbk. pp.232. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

Contents

  • Introductory
  1. The First Stage
  2. On the Siberian Railway
  3. A Foreword on Japan
  4. In Japan—Osaka
  5. In Japan—Nara, Tokushima and Kyoto
  6. In Japan—The Hokkaido
  7. In Japan—Tokyo, Hiroshima, etc.
  8. In Japan—Kiu-Shiu
  9. A Foreword on China
  10. In China—Shanghai, Hang-chow and Shaou-hing
  11. In China—Ningpo and T’ai-chow
  12. In China—At Shanghai Again
  13. In China—Fuh-Kien Province
  14. In China—Fuh-Kien Province (continued)
  15. In China—Canton
  16. In China—Kong Kong
  17. A Foreword on India and Ceylon
  18. Ceylon
  19. In India—Tinnevelly
  20. In India—Madras, Calcutta and Nadiya
  21. In India—Benares and Allahabad
  22. In India—Lucknow, Cawmpore, Agra, Dehli and Peshawar
  23. In India—Lahore, Amritsar, Tarn Taran and Batala
  24. In India—Meerut, Nasik and Bombay
  25. A Foreword on Palestine and Egypt
  26. In the Holy Land—Jaffa and Jerusalem
  27. In the Holy Land—Nazareth and Lake of Galilee
  28. In Egypt—A Week in Cairo
  • Conclusion

Introductory

The story of eight months of 1909-10 spent on the frontiers of Christendom is now sent forth for general information. It is the story of a soldier spared for a short time from his base of operations to see how the battle fared at the front and to encourage the fighting line. The importance of this record arises from more reasons than one.

A great many people are now travelling. They are found on all the great roads–north and south and east and west. They see what they go to see. Many of them, like the present writer, feel it to be their plain duty to write a book on their return! The reader must judge as to whether the ordinary globe-trotter has met with phenomena such as the following pages show forth. Travellers are very much at the mercy of their guide books….

Page 1

Kate Allenby of Mayurbhanj, India

Kate Allenby [1871-1931]

Kate Allenby [1871-1931] was an Australian missionary to Mayurbhanj in Odisha State in Eastern India. This small book was written as a record of her work.

My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of this public domain title for digitisation.

G.B.G., Kate Allenby of Mayurbhanj. Brisbane, Queensland: Evangelical Missionary Society in Mayurbhanj, 1933. Pbk. pp.77. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

Contents

  • Foreword
  • Chapters 1-14
  • Appendix

Chapter 1

The purpose of this little volume is to Introduction bring before you as faithfully as possible the details of the life and work of Miss K. Allanby, who has just recently been laid to rest in Mayurbhanj, India, the scene of her labours for the past 40 years.

Shall we first take a brief glance into the home from whence she came, and at the parents to whom she owed the Christian influences of her childhood? Her fat her, Mr. Joseph Allanby, having lost his parents very early in Life, came out from England to Australia when quite a young man. He afterwards became a well-known hydropathist in Brisbane. Her mother, Mary Brady, was of Scottish descent, though born in Ireland. She was one of five sisters and was converted at an early age. Being the first, and for some time, the only Christian in the home, she was never fully understood by the other members of the family; although there were other converts afterwards, she had so out-distanced them in spiritual growth, that this feeling remained in spite of the fact that she always had a very strong affection for her sisters.

In the year 1865, accompanied by her mother and two of her sisters, she came out to Australia. It was on the voyage out that she first met Mr. Allanby, and they were afterwards married on January 25th, 1867, making their home in South Brisbane, Queensland.

Into this home Miss K. Allenby was born in the year 1871.

She was the second child in the family, the first being a son, who was dedicated to the Lord at birth, in the hope that, in after years, he would enter the ministry, but he died four months before his little sister Katie was born.

The parents’ hopes were now transferred to this second child. Thinking that, although she could not become a minister, she might, as a teacher, be used of the Lord, they set her apart to this end, and sought to give her the best education possible, to fit her for her future work.…

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