History of Anglican Missions in North India

Cover: C.F. Andrews [1871-1940], North India. Handbooks of English Church Expansion

This is a brief history of the work of Anglican missions in North India up to around 1908. My thanks to Redcliffe College for making a copy of this public domain title available for digitisation.

C.F. Andrews [1871-1940], North India. Handbooks of English Church Expansion. London & Oxford: A.R. Mowbray & Co. Ltd., 1908. Hbk. pp.243. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

Contents

  • General Preface
  • Editor’s Preface
  • Author’s Preface
  1. Early Days in Bengal
  2. Calcutta and Its Bishops
  3. Chhota Nagpur and Mass Movements
  4. Father Goreh
  5. The Oxford Mission
  6. Allahabad, Cawmpore, and Dehli
  7. The Panjab and Islam
  8. Amritsar and the Sikhs
  9. The Frontier Missions
  10. The Indian Point of View
  11. The National Movement
  • Appendix A. Modern Krishna Worship
  • Appendix B. Literature Dealing with Mission Work in North India

Editor’s Preface

Few facts in modern history are more arresting or instructive than the rapid extension of the Church’s responsibilities and labours in the colonial and missionary fields; yet, until recently, few facts perhaps have been less familiar to those who have not deliberately given themselves to a study of the subject.

It has therefore been felt that the time has come when a series of monographs, dealing with the expansion of the Church of England beyond the seas, may be of service towards fixing the popular attention upon that great cause, the growing interest in which constitutes so thankworthy a feature in the Church’s outlook to-day.

The range of this series is confined to the work in which the Church of England is engaged. That story is too full to allow of any attempt to include the splendid devotion, and the successful labours, of other Missions of Christendom. But, for a fair work, a knowledge of those Missions is essential; and it is in the hope of leading some of its readers to such further comparative study that this series has been taken in hand.

The Editors have tried to keep in view the fact that, while the wonderful achievements here recorded have been accomplished in large part through the agency of our Missionary Societies, yet these Societies are, after all, only the hands and arms of the Holy Church in the execution of her divine mission to the world…

Pages vii-viii.

Zenana Bible and Medical Missions in India

Cover: Ella Mary Weatherley [1870-1921], From West to East. Being the Story of a Recent Visit to Indian Missions

Ella Mary Weatherley was the Honorary Secretary of the Zenana Bible and Medical Mission (ZBMM) (which today has become Interserve). In around 1909 she undertook a tour of ZBMM station across India and this book is the substance of her report.

My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of this public domain title for digitisation.

Ella Mary Weatherley [1870-1921], From West to East. Being the Story of a Recent Visit to Indian Missions. London: Zenana Bible and Medical Mission, [1910]. Hbk. pp.128. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

Contents

  • Introduction
  1. Port Said
  2. Bombay
  3. Nasik
  4. Manmad
  5. Agra
  6. Cawnpore
  7. Lucknow
  8. Khurja and Bulandshahr
  9. Dehli
  10. Lamore and Kasur
  11. Benares
  12. Gorakhpur
  13. Allahabad
  14. Sultanpur
  15. Jaunpur
  16. Patna
  17. Valtoha
  18. Patti
  19. Parantij—Bombay
  20. Panchgani anbd Sholapur

Introduction by the Right Rev E.G. Ingram, D.D. [1851-1926]

I have lately been travelling over much of the ground covered by Miss Weatherley, and it is a pleasure to write a few words by way of calling attention to the sort of information she is now in a position to afford to those who are willing to know the facts about our thin Missionary fighting line.

First of all let me say that I am a great believer in the value of the impression a visitor is in a position to convey. Again and again during my Far Eastern journeys Missionaries have said, “It would never have occurred to us to put that down.” And they admitted that probably their very familiarity with the scenes in the midst of which they live has made them a little absent-minded as to the sort of facts the workers in the homeland want most to hear about. So true it is that “lookers on see most of the game!”

Then again I am anxious to say again and again that it is necessary for the Home base and the front to be intelligently and sympathetically linked together. Though doubted whether the Mission wants the casual visitor, there can be no doubt that anyone who comes from the Home Committee with a desire to give to fellow-workers the right hand of fellowship, and to get to understand their problems at first hand, will receive a warm welcome and will do much good.

Such a visit as that described in the following pages will be a distinct asset. Everything Miss Weatherley reads or hears will come to her now with a new intelligence, and the word in season will come easy both in Conference and in Committee.

The stages are constantly changing. The sort of work and worker needed yesterday may not be wanted to-morrow. The emergence of an indigenous Christianity means greater changes still. The Missionaries will do better work in proportion as they realize they have an intelligent and co-operative base behind them.

Schwartz of Tanjore by Jesse Page

Jesse Page, Schwartz of Tanjore.

Christian Friedrich Schwartz was a German Lutheran missionary who served in India for 48 years. I have tried to find the date of death for the author of this biography, Jesse Page. Finding no record of his birth or death I contacted the only one of his publishers still in existence and they agreed with my conclusion that the name was pseudonymous. As he, whoever he was, was almost certainly dead before 1948, judging by the date of his first book I am assuming that his works are in the public domain. If anyone can throw any further light on this, do get in touch with me. My thanks to the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for making this book available for digitisation.

Jesse Page, Schwartz of Tanjore. London: SPCK, 1921. Hbk. pp.203. [Click to visit the Christian Friedrich Schwartz page for the download link for this title]

Contents

  • Preface
  1. How Christianity Came to India
  2. the Friar and the Lutheran
  3. From College to Mission Field
  4. In Touch with the Brahmins
  5. Amid War’s Alarms
  6. A Glimpse of the Man Himself
  7. Wayside Work
  8. In First Touch with Tanjore
  9. As Peacemaker with Hyder Ali
  10. The Strain Begins to Tell
  11. Tuljajee and Serfogee
  12. Responsilities and Patience
  13. A Noble Defence on Missions
  14. The Shadows Lengthen
  15. The Home Going
  16. The Memory of the Just
  • Index

Preface

There is one reason; amongst others, why the memory of Christian Frederick Schwartz deserves to be kept green in the history of missions. It is not generally known that the consuming passion for the conversion of the heathen which burned in the soul of Henry Martyn was kindled at the torch of this veteran witness for the faith. While still a student at Cambridge, Martyn was profoundly impressed by reading his journal and letters, and when he himself arrived in India, ten years after the death of Schwartz, he took counsel with many who, like Dr. Kerr, could stir his heart with first-hand stories of the venerable missionary they had known and loved so well. Happily for us, these records which moved Martyn so deeply are still preserved, fresh and vivid, a veritable classic in missionary literature.
The age of Schwartz, from a missionary point of view, has scarcely received adequate attention at the hand of the historian…

Page iii

Women’s Missionary Work in India and China

Cover: Glimpses of Women's Missionary Work in India and China.

Written shortly after the Jubilee of the Baptist Missionary Society (1867-1917), this book aims to provide a series of snapshots of the work done by female Baptist missionaries. It is illustrated by six photographic plates from India and China.

My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of this public domain title for digitisation.

George Hawker [1857-1932], Open the Window Eastward. Glimpses of Women’s Missionary Work in India and China. London: The Carey Press, [1917]. Hbk. pp.170. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

  • Preface
  1. Pioneers
  2. Zenana Echoes
  3. Zenana Schools
  4. Women’s Influence
  5. Village Itineration
  6. Boat-Tours in the Beels
  7. “Going-a-Plaguing”
  8. Famine Relief Work
  9. “Doctor Sahiba”
  10. An Industrial Settlement (Salamatpur)
  11. Education: Dehli, Entally and Ballygunge
  12. India: Review and Outlook
  13. Country Work in Shantung
  14. Bessie Campbell and Her Biographer
  15. Certain Women and their Stories
  16. In the Days of the Second Revolution
  17. The New Opportunity

Chapter 2: Zenana Echoes

When our missionary sisters entered the grudgingly opened doors of the zenanas, they were constrained, more markedly in some districts than in others, to make haste slowly. In a speech delivered in London in 1881, when the Mission was just fourteen years old, the Rev. R. F. Guyton described the evolution of zenana work proper in the city of Delhi, the scene of his own memorable labours. At first our sisters could attempt little more than the establishing of friendly relations by means of conversation on general topics. Later they were able to give lessons in reading, writing and secular subjects. Then they taught lace-work and other, feminine employments, which provided new interests and relieved the monotony of seclusion; and finally, when confidence had been secured and minds opened, they were able to introduce the Scriptures and urge the claims of Christ.

Mr. Guyton was of opinion that this policy of patience was entirely justified, and that more precipitate evangelism would have resulted in exclusion. Since that time zenana doors have been opening ever more swiftly and widely, and if the missionary staff were immensely increased, the members of it and their native assistants would find more than enough to do of actual gospel work.

In reading this address of Mr. Guyton’s, and relating it to other records, one is driven to reflect upon the appalling amount of inane and trivial talk which must have afflicted our women missionaries, taxing their patience to the point of exhaustion, in those early days, and, indeed, all the way along. Of course small talk is not peculiar to any race or to either sex, and if the conversation of the world were stenographed for a single day, and the, volume of it appraised by some commissioned angel of adequate endurance, it is gravely doubtful whether the talk of women would be adjudged to be vainer or more wearisome than that of men. That men think lightly of women’s matters is irrelevant. The angel critic, superior to masculine limitations and unbiased by masculine conceit, would weigh with equal scales….

Pages19-20.

Missions of the CMS and CEZMS in the Punjab and Sindh by Robert Clark

Robert Clark [1825-1900]

Robert Clark was one of the first two missionaries from the Church Missionary Society to arrive in the Punjab and founded the CMS mission station at Amrtisar, the CMS Afghan Mission in Peshawar and the Kashmir Mission. He was therefore well qualified to write this history of the work in the region. My thanks to the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for making this public domain title available for digitisation.

Robert Clark [1825–1900], The Missions of the Church Missionary Society and the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society in the Punjab and Sindh. London: Church Missionary Society, 1904. Hbk. pp.280. [Click to visit the Robert Clark page for the download link for this title and others]

Contents

  • Prefatory Note
  1. Tthe Commencement of the Punjab Mission
  2. The Missionaries
  3. Statistics of the Society
  4. The Geographica; Position of the Mission Stations
  5. The People of the Punjab and Sindh
  6. The Creeds of the People of the Country
  7. Amritsar and its Institutions
  8. Batála
  9. Uddoké. The Story of the Late Rev. Pundit Khabak Singh
  10. Nárowál
  11. Anjála and Khutrain
  12. Bahrwál, Near Atárí
  13. The Tarán Táran Village Mission
  14. Jandiála
  15. The Clarkábád Agricultural Settlement
  16. Low Caste Converts and Apostasies
  17. Lahore
  18. Simla and Kotgarh
  19. Kangra
  20. Kashmír
  21. Pesháwar and Hazára
  22. The Deraját: Bannú, Dera Ismail Khán, and Tank
  23. The Belúch Mission
  24. Multán
  25. Quetta
  26. Karáachi
  27. Hyderabad
  28. Sukkur
  29. The Political Aspect of Missions
  30. Missions to Mohammedans
  31. Our Need of Chosen Agents
  32. Organisation
  33. Conclusion

Appendices

  1. Statistical Tables, 1873 to 1902
  2. Christian Literature Prepared by Members of the C.M.S. and the C.E.Z.M.S. in the Punjah and Sindh
  • Index

Lilian Mary Edward’s Work in India

Cover: Lilian Mary Edwards [1877-1945], A Welsh Woman's Work in India

Lilian Mary Edwards was the daughter of the Principal of the Baptist College in Cardiff. In this book she tells the story of her missionary service in India in order to encourage others in Wales [and beyond] to respond to the need there.

My thanks to Redcliffe College for making a copy of this public domain book available for digitisation.

Lilian Mary Edwards [1877-1945], A Welsh Woman’s Work in India. Caerphilly: Self-published, [1940]. Hbk. pp.98. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

Contents

  • Foreword
  1. The Call
  2. First Years in India
  3. Camping
  4. Zenana Visiting
  5. Women and Girls
  6. Festivals
  7. Temples
  8. Friends
  9. Daily Work in India
  10. Last Words

Chapter 1: The Call

In reviewing the lives of God’s children, we discover that they do not make their own lives, or choose their own paths. As Jeremiah writes, “It is not in man that walketh to direct his steps.” We assuredly know that our lives are in the hands of Another, and that they are intended to accomplish a purpose. We are to fit in with others “as stones fitly framed together groweth into a holy temple.” We cannot say with Henley the poet, in his “Invictus,” “I am master of my fate.”

My paternal grandfather would have rejoiced to know that his granddaughter had become a missionary. He was a farmer and monumental sculptor, living in a small village in Carmarthenshire. He kept himself well informed of missionary progress, by taking regularly the missionary magazine then issued. He not only kept himself well-informed but took care to impart the knowledge to others by reading the missionary news in the week-night meetings. In those days not everyone could read. He was so much venerated in that place that one is reminded of Job, as described “old men rose when they saw him, young men hid themselves and the princes refrained from speaking.” Not in his case the princes, but young men, if speaking or acting undesirably, saw my grandfather coming along, were heard to say in subdued tones, “Here’s John Edwards.” Prayer, inspired by the Holy Ghost, accomplishes God’s work. I became a missionary as the fulfilment of my mother’s prayer, realized twenty-five years after her death…

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Church of England Zenana Missions in India and Sri Lanka

A.D., Until the Shadows Flee Away. The Story of the C.E.Z.M.S. in India and Ceylon

The zenana missions were outreach programmes established in British India with the aim of converting women to Christianity. From the mid 19th century, they sent female missionaries into the homes of Indian women, including the private areas that male visitors were not allowed to see (zenana). Gradually these missions expanded from purely evangelical work to providing medical and education services. Hospitals and schools established by these missions are still active, making the zenana missions an important part of the history of Christianity in India.

“Zenana Missions”, Wikipedia

My thanks to the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for making this public domain book available for digitisation.

A.D., Until the Shadows Flee Away. The Story of the C.E.Z.M.S. in India and Ceylon. London: Church of England Zenana Missionary Society, n.d. Hbk. pp.247. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

Contents

Part 1: Outlines and Impressions

  1. India and its Peoples
  2. India Past and Present
  3. Religions of India
  4. Condition of India and its Women
  5. India’s Women at the Crossing of the Way
  6. Folk-lore
  7. “Little Kings”
  8. The Church of England Zenana Missionary Society

Part 2: The Story of Work Amongst the Women of India and Ceylon

  1. The Border-Lnd and Over
  2. Through the Sindh to the Sea
  3. The Land of the Five Rivers
  4. The Plain of the Ganges
  5. The Central Provinces
  6. In the Telugu Country
  7. Madras and the Plateau of Mysore
  8. The Blue Mountains and the Lords of the Hills
  9. The Sacred Hedge
  10. The Land of the Conch Shell
  11. The Shining Land
  • Afterword—As the Stars
  • Appendices

New Book on the Serampore Mission

The Rev Dr Johnson Thomaskutty, my friend at Serampore College, India, has asked me to publicise a significant new book on Chrtistian mission in India, which I am happy to do.

Serampore Mission: Perspectives in Contexts

Serampore Mission: Perspectives in Contexts

Edited by Johnson Thomaskutty

The Serampore College—one of the historical institutions in India, founded by the initiatives of William Carey, Joshua Marshman, and William Ward in 1818—celebrated its bicentenary year in 2018. The Serampore College as a well established educational institution reached its current status by crossing several historical milestones and achieving national and international acclamations such as the Royal Charter of Incorporation (1827) and the confirmation of the Charter by the Bengal Government Act IV (1918).

In the current book, the biblical, historical, hermeneutical, theological, missional, ministerial, and contextual disciplines of the Serampore Mission movement are integrally analyzed from multiple perspectives. The contemporary outlook and significance of the movement are investigated in closer relationship with faith, scripture, and theology. As the nation of India advances as a global community, the book attempts to revisit and re-interpret the basic principles and strategies of the Serampore Mission from multiple vantage points.

Through the consultation, we ultimately attempted to revisit the Serampore Mission from a holistic perspective and to develop ideas for contemporary application. The Biblical and hermeneutical, linguistic and translational, theological and ethical, historical and ecumenical, dialogical and religious, ecological and contextual, and missional and ministerial aspects of the movement were examined with a key focus on their significance in today’s life-situation. It was also an attempt to fill the gap between the contexts of the Serampore Mission in its own Sitz im Leben and the contemporary realities of the twenty-first century CE with the help of hypothetical brainstorming and critical investigations.

The missionary movement in Serampore and in the extended Indian sub-continent under the leadership of William Carey, Joshua Marshman, and William Ward and the establishment of the Serampore College were key initiatives in the history of Christianity in India. The unique contributions of Hannah Marshman as a woman, who endeavored hard in the movement, enable us to think beyond the traditional boundaries of the “Trio” to the wider level of the “Quartet.” The mission’s contributions to the academic world, ecclesiastical contexts, and the society as a whole need to be acknowledged with high esteem and at the same time re-evaluated in order to derive new meanings for the twenty-first century missionary, ministerial, and academic exercises.

This book is an attempt to answer some of the significant questions such as: First, how do we understand the Christian identity in the contemporary socio-political and multi-religious context of India? Second, how can the missional and ministerial tasks of the church be integrated with the combined efforts of missiologists, biblical scholars, educators, historians, religious scholars and theologians? Third, what are the challenges we confront in India today to consider the missional, ministerial, and hermeneutical aspects with greater priority? Fourth, how significant is the Serampore Mission in the contemporary Indian context? How does it continue to influence the academic world, the Church, and the general public? And fifth, how do the contributions of the Serampore missionaries continue to influence Christian communities in their witness, mission, and evangelism? As we flip through the pages of the book, the above stated questions shall enable us to fathom the realities with a contemporary outlook.

The title Serampore Mission: Perspectives in Contexts requires some explanation. The usage “Serampore Mission” is an overarching expression to understand the contributions of the missionaries as biblical expositors, theologians of their own times, vernacular linguists and translators, educators with deep impression, ministerial and missional experts, botanists, liberators, social transformers, founders and administrators, editors and publishers, and the like. The virtue of versatility and multifaceted missional and ministerial strategies of the missionaries are explored here with vigor for further reflection and action. The usage of the term “Perspectives” enables the readers to fathom deep into how scholars from multiple vantage points deliberated their views concerning the contributions of the Serampore missionaries. Moreover, the authors of the essays are experts in different fields of studies and they reflect their views about the Serampore Mission with profundity and brilliance.

As the Serampore missionaries perceived the reality of God, human struggles, and the cosmic order from a transformative and liberative point of view, it is our task to conceptualize and systematize their contributions with a holistic outlook and a paradigmatic perception. In that way, we can transform our present struggles and future hopes based on the past axioms of the missionaries. The term “Contexts” is used with a broader spectrum of understanding in order to reconstruct the views from multi-religious, multi-cultural, multi-denominational, and multi-lingual contexts of the nation. The authors here represent diverse contexts and with multiple perspectives to invigorate the mission and ministry of the Serampore missionaries.

Publication details

Johnson Thomaskutty, ed., Serampore Mission: Perspective in Contexts. ISPCK, 2019. ISBN-10: 9388945069. ISBN-13: 978-9388945066. Pbk. pp.338.

Available from

Robert Clark Pioneer Missionary to the Punjab

Robert Clark [1825–1900]

This is the standard biography of Robert Clark, the renowned pioneer Church Society Missionary to the “Panjab” (now Punjab). My thanks to the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for providing a copy of this public domain title for digitisation.

Henry Martyn Clark [1857?-1916], Robert Clark of the Punjab. Pioneer and Missionary Statesman. London: Andrew Melrose, 1907. Hbk. pp.364. [Click to visit the Robert Clark page for the download to this title and others]

Contents

  • Preface
  1. Ancestry and Boyhood
  2. Years of Preparation
  3. Called to be a Missionary
  4. The Story of the Panjab
  5. The Panjab: Its Peoples and Religions
  6. Founding the Punjab Missions
  7. Early Converts
  8. A New Field: Afghanistan
  9. At Peshawar and Amritsar
  10. Pioneer Work in Cashmere and Thibet
  11. Apostle to the Afghans
  12. The Afghan Mission
  13. Trials, Losses, and Gains—Cashmere
  14. Early Days in Cashmere
  15. The Cashmire Mission
  16. The Cashmire Mission—continued
  17. Development of the Panjab Mission
  18. Founding a Native Church
  19. Facing Social Problems
  20. Educating the Convert
  21. Victory in Cashmere
  22. Medical Missions and Bible Commentaries
  23. Native Church Council and Alexandra School
  24. Mission Secretariat
  25. Mission Secretariat—continued
  26. Retrospect and Rest
  • Index

Crusader in Kashmir by Ernest F. Neve

Ernest Frederic Neve [1861-1946], A Crusader in Kashmir. Being the Life of Dr Arthur Neve, with an Account of the Medical Missionary Work of Two Brothers & Its Later Developments Down to the Present Day

A biography of Arthur Neve, medical missionary to Kashmir, written by his younger brother. My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of this public domain book for digitisation.

Ernest Frederic Neve [1861-1946], A Crusader in Kashmir. Being the Life of Dr Arthur Neve, with an Account of the Medical Missionary Work of Two Brothers & Its Later Developments Down to the Present Day. London: Seeley, Service & Co. Ltd., 1928. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

Contents

  1. Arthur Neve—Early Days
  2. Evolution of a Medical Mission
  3. A Practical Idealist
  4. Arthur Neve, Pioneer & Travellers
  5. The Campaign Extended
  6. Last Years of Service
  7. Medical Missions: Their Utility & Influence
  8. Medical Missions: Their Place & Power
  9. The Kashmir Medical Missions Hospital
  10. In the Wards
  11. Full Speed Ahead
  12. The Problem of Leprosy
  13. Is Leprosy Contagious?
  14. Can Lepers be Cleansed?
  15. Amongst the Villages
  16. A Land of Rovers & Mountain Passes
  17. A Mountain Climb
  18. Further Afield
  19. Near the Roof of the World
  20. Aims & Achievements
  • Index

Introduction

Has the Church of Great Britain, using the word in its widest acceptation, at all adequately heard or acted upon the call to go over and help India? Has there ever been manifested more than a minute fraction of the zeal in carrying on a modern crusade in India which was shown by the heroic and chivalrous but misguided hordes who poured Eastward to recover an empty Sepulchre and who fought the Moslem with his own weapons?

Taking India as a whole, the Church of Christ is in contact chiefly with three great groups of peoples the Hindus, the Mohammedans and the Depressed classes.

It is common knowledge that the last group is very accessible to Christian teaching. Many thousands have been baptized both in the south, where the work of the Indian Bishop of Dornakal is well known, and also in the north, where the chief numerical additions to the Church have been from this class.

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