Missions of the CMS and CEZMS in the Punjab and Sindh by Robert Clark

Robert Clark [1825-1900]

Robert Clark was one of the first two missionaries from the Church Missionary Society to arrive in the Punjab and founded the CMS mission station at Amrtisar, the CMS Afghan Mission in Peshawar and the Kashmir Mission. He was therefore well qualified to write this history of the work in the region. My thanks to the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for making this public domain title available for digitisation.

Robert Clark [1825–1900], The Missions of the Church Missionary Society and the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society in the Punjab and Sindh. London: Church Missionary Society, 1904. Hbk. pp.280. [Click to visit the Robert Clark page for the download link for this title and others]

Contents

  • Prefatory Note
  1. Tthe Commencement of the Punjab Mission
  2. The Missionaries
  3. Statistics of the Society
  4. The Geographica; Position of the Mission Stations
  5. The People of the Punjab and Sindh
  6. The Creeds of the People of the Country
  7. Amritsar and its Institutions
  8. Batála
  9. Uddoké. The Story of the Late Rev. Pundit Khabak Singh
  10. Nárowál
  11. Anjála and Khutrain
  12. Bahrwál, Near Atárí
  13. The Tarán Táran Village Mission
  14. Jandiála
  15. The Clarkábád Agricultural Settlement
  16. Low Caste Converts and Apostasies
  17. Lahore
  18. Simla and Kotgarh
  19. Kangra
  20. Kashmír
  21. Pesháwar and Hazára
  22. The Deraját: Bannú, Dera Ismail Khán, and Tank
  23. The Belúch Mission
  24. Multán
  25. Quetta
  26. Karáachi
  27. Hyderabad
  28. Sukkur
  29. The Political Aspect of Missions
  30. Missions to Mohammedans
  31. Our Need of Chosen Agents
  32. Organisation
  33. Conclusion

Appendices

  1. Statistical Tables, 1873 to 1902
  2. Christian Literature Prepared by Members of the C.M.S. and the C.E.Z.M.S. in the Punjah and Sindh
  • Index

Lilian Mary Edward’s Work in India

Cover: Lilian Mary Edwards [1877-1945], A Welsh Woman's Work in India

Lilian Mary Edwards was the daughter of the Principal of the Baptist College in Cardiff. In this book she tells the story of her missionary service in India in order to encourage others in Wales [and beyond] to respond to the need there.

My thanks to Redcliffe College for making a copy of this public domain book available for digitisation.

Lilian Mary Edwards [1877-1945], A Welsh Woman’s Work in India. Caerphilly: Self-published, [1940]. Hbk. pp.98. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

Contents

  • Foreword
  1. The Call
  2. First Years in India
  3. Camping
  4. Zenana Visiting
  5. Women and Girls
  6. Festivals
  7. Temples
  8. Friends
  9. Daily Work in India
  10. Last Words

Chapter 1: The Call

In reviewing the lives of God’s children, we discover that they do not make their own lives, or choose their own paths. As Jeremiah writes, “It is not in man that walketh to direct his steps.” We assuredly know that our lives are in the hands of Another, and that they are intended to accomplish a purpose. We are to fit in with others “as stones fitly framed together groweth into a holy temple.” We cannot say with Henley the poet, in his “Invictus,” “I am master of my fate.”

My paternal grandfather would have rejoiced to know that his granddaughter had become a missionary. He was a farmer and monumental sculptor, living in a small village in Carmarthenshire. He kept himself well informed of missionary progress, by taking regularly the missionary magazine then issued. He not only kept himself well-informed but took care to impart the knowledge to others by reading the missionary news in the week-night meetings. In those days not everyone could read. He was so much venerated in that place that one is reminded of Job, as described “old men rose when they saw him, young men hid themselves and the princes refrained from speaking.” Not in his case the princes, but young men, if speaking or acting undesirably, saw my grandfather coming along, were heard to say in subdued tones, “Here’s John Edwards.” Prayer, inspired by the Holy Ghost, accomplishes God’s work. I became a missionary as the fulfilment of my mother’s prayer, realized twenty-five years after her death…

Page 1

Church of England Zenana Missions in India and Sri Lanka

A.D., Until the Shadows Flee Away. The Story of the C.E.Z.M.S. in India and Ceylon

The zenana missions were outreach programmes established in British India with the aim of converting women to Christianity. From the mid 19th century, they sent female missionaries into the homes of Indian women, including the private areas that male visitors were not allowed to see (zenana). Gradually these missions expanded from purely evangelical work to providing medical and education services. Hospitals and schools established by these missions are still active, making the zenana missions an important part of the history of Christianity in India.

“Zenana Missions”, Wikipedia

My thanks to the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for making this public domain book available for digitisation.

A.D., Until the Shadows Flee Away. The Story of the C.E.Z.M.S. in India and Ceylon. London: Church of England Zenana Missionary Society, n.d. Hbk. pp.247. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

Contents

Part 1: Outlines and Impressions

  1. India and its Peoples
  2. India Past and Present
  3. Religions of India
  4. Condition of India and its Women
  5. India’s Women at the Crossing of the Way
  6. Folk-lore
  7. “Little Kings”
  8. The Church of England Zenana Missionary Society

Part 2: The Story of Work Amongst the Women of India and Ceylon

  1. The Border-Lnd and Over
  2. Through the Sindh to the Sea
  3. The Land of the Five Rivers
  4. The Plain of the Ganges
  5. The Central Provinces
  6. In the Telugu Country
  7. Madras and the Plateau of Mysore
  8. The Blue Mountains and the Lords of the Hills
  9. The Sacred Hedge
  10. The Land of the Conch Shell
  11. The Shining Land
  • Afterword—As the Stars
  • Appendices

New Book on the Serampore Mission

The Rev Dr Johnson Thomaskutty, my friend at Serampore College, India, has asked me to publicise a significant new book on Chrtistian mission in India, which I am happy to do.

Serampore Mission: Perspectives in Contexts

Serampore Mission: Perspectives in Contexts

Edited by Johnson Thomaskutty

The Serampore College—one of the historical institutions in India, founded by the initiatives of William Carey, Joshua Marshman, and William Ward in 1818—celebrated its bicentenary year in 2018. The Serampore College as a well established educational institution reached its current status by crossing several historical milestones and achieving national and international acclamations such as the Royal Charter of Incorporation (1827) and the confirmation of the Charter by the Bengal Government Act IV (1918).

In the current book, the biblical, historical, hermeneutical, theological, missional, ministerial, and contextual disciplines of the Serampore Mission movement are integrally analyzed from multiple perspectives. The contemporary outlook and significance of the movement are investigated in closer relationship with faith, scripture, and theology. As the nation of India advances as a global community, the book attempts to revisit and re-interpret the basic principles and strategies of the Serampore Mission from multiple vantage points.

Through the consultation, we ultimately attempted to revisit the Serampore Mission from a holistic perspective and to develop ideas for contemporary application. The Biblical and hermeneutical, linguistic and translational, theological and ethical, historical and ecumenical, dialogical and religious, ecological and contextual, and missional and ministerial aspects of the movement were examined with a key focus on their significance in today’s life-situation. It was also an attempt to fill the gap between the contexts of the Serampore Mission in its own Sitz im Leben and the contemporary realities of the twenty-first century CE with the help of hypothetical brainstorming and critical investigations.

The missionary movement in Serampore and in the extended Indian sub-continent under the leadership of William Carey, Joshua Marshman, and William Ward and the establishment of the Serampore College were key initiatives in the history of Christianity in India. The unique contributions of Hannah Marshman as a woman, who endeavored hard in the movement, enable us to think beyond the traditional boundaries of the “Trio” to the wider level of the “Quartet.” The mission’s contributions to the academic world, ecclesiastical contexts, and the society as a whole need to be acknowledged with high esteem and at the same time re-evaluated in order to derive new meanings for the twenty-first century missionary, ministerial, and academic exercises.

This book is an attempt to answer some of the significant questions such as: First, how do we understand the Christian identity in the contemporary socio-political and multi-religious context of India? Second, how can the missional and ministerial tasks of the church be integrated with the combined efforts of missiologists, biblical scholars, educators, historians, religious scholars and theologians? Third, what are the challenges we confront in India today to consider the missional, ministerial, and hermeneutical aspects with greater priority? Fourth, how significant is the Serampore Mission in the contemporary Indian context? How does it continue to influence the academic world, the Church, and the general public? And fifth, how do the contributions of the Serampore missionaries continue to influence Christian communities in their witness, mission, and evangelism? As we flip through the pages of the book, the above stated questions shall enable us to fathom the realities with a contemporary outlook.

The title Serampore Mission: Perspectives in Contexts requires some explanation. The usage “Serampore Mission” is an overarching expression to understand the contributions of the missionaries as biblical expositors, theologians of their own times, vernacular linguists and translators, educators with deep impression, ministerial and missional experts, botanists, liberators, social transformers, founders and administrators, editors and publishers, and the like. The virtue of versatility and multifaceted missional and ministerial strategies of the missionaries are explored here with vigor for further reflection and action. The usage of the term “Perspectives” enables the readers to fathom deep into how scholars from multiple vantage points deliberated their views concerning the contributions of the Serampore missionaries. Moreover, the authors of the essays are experts in different fields of studies and they reflect their views about the Serampore Mission with profundity and brilliance.

As the Serampore missionaries perceived the reality of God, human struggles, and the cosmic order from a transformative and liberative point of view, it is our task to conceptualize and systematize their contributions with a holistic outlook and a paradigmatic perception. In that way, we can transform our present struggles and future hopes based on the past axioms of the missionaries. The term “Contexts” is used with a broader spectrum of understanding in order to reconstruct the views from multi-religious, multi-cultural, multi-denominational, and multi-lingual contexts of the nation. The authors here represent diverse contexts and with multiple perspectives to invigorate the mission and ministry of the Serampore missionaries.

Publication details

Johnson Thomaskutty, ed., Serampore Mission: Perspective in Contexts. ISPCK, 2019. ISBN-10: 9388945069. ISBN-13: 978-9388945066. Pbk. pp.338.

Available from

Robert Clark Pioneer Missionary to the Punjab

Robert Clark [1825–1900]

This is the standard biography of Robert Clark, the renowned pioneer Church Society Missionary to the “Panjab” (now Punjab). My thanks to the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for providing a copy of this public domain title for digitisation.

Henry Martyn Clark [1857?-1916], Robert Clark of the Punjab. Pioneer and Missionary Statesman. London: Andrew Melrose, 1907. Hbk. pp.364. [Click to visit the Robert Clark page for the download to this title and others]

Contents

  • Preface
  1. Ancestry and Boyhood
  2. Years of Preparation
  3. Called to be a Missionary
  4. The Story of the Panjab
  5. The Panjab: Its Peoples and Religions
  6. Founding the Punjab Missions
  7. Early Converts
  8. A New Field: Afghanistan
  9. At Peshawar and Amritsar
  10. Pioneer Work in Cashmere and Thibet
  11. Apostle to the Afghans
  12. The Afghan Mission
  13. Trials, Losses, and Gains—Cashmere
  14. Early Days in Cashmere
  15. The Cashmire Mission
  16. The Cashmire Mission—continued
  17. Development of the Panjab Mission
  18. Founding a Native Church
  19. Facing Social Problems
  20. Educating the Convert
  21. Victory in Cashmere
  22. Medical Missions and Bible Commentaries
  23. Native Church Council and Alexandra School
  24. Mission Secretariat
  25. Mission Secretariat—continued
  26. Retrospect and Rest
  • Index

Crusader in Kashmir by Ernest F. Neve

Ernest Frederic Neve [1861-1946], A Crusader in Kashmir. Being the Life of Dr Arthur Neve, with an Account of the Medical Missionary Work of Two Brothers & Its Later Developments Down to the Present Day

A biography of Arthur Neve, medical missionary to Kashmir, written by his younger brother. My thanks to Redcliffe College for providing a copy of this public domain book for digitisation.

Ernest Frederic Neve [1861-1946], A Crusader in Kashmir. Being the Life of Dr Arthur Neve, with an Account of the Medical Missionary Work of Two Brothers & Its Later Developments Down to the Present Day. London: Seeley, Service & Co. Ltd., 1928. [Click to visit the download page for this title]

Contents

  1. Arthur Neve—Early Days
  2. Evolution of a Medical Mission
  3. A Practical Idealist
  4. Arthur Neve, Pioneer & Travellers
  5. The Campaign Extended
  6. Last Years of Service
  7. Medical Missions: Their Utility & Influence
  8. Medical Missions: Their Place & Power
  9. The Kashmir Medical Missions Hospital
  10. In the Wards
  11. Full Speed Ahead
  12. The Problem of Leprosy
  13. Is Leprosy Contagious?
  14. Can Lepers be Cleansed?
  15. Amongst the Villages
  16. A Land of Rovers & Mountain Passes
  17. A Mountain Climb
  18. Further Afield
  19. Near the Roof of the World
  20. Aims & Achievements
  • Index

Introduction

Has the Church of Great Britain, using the word in its widest acceptation, at all adequately heard or acted upon the call to go over and help India? Has there ever been manifested more than a minute fraction of the zeal in carrying on a modern crusade in India which was shown by the heroic and chivalrous but misguided hordes who poured Eastward to recover an empty Sepulchre and who fought the Moslem with his own weapons?

Taking India as a whole, the Church of Christ is in contact chiefly with three great groups of peoples the Hindus, the Mohammedans and the Depressed classes.

It is common knowledge that the last group is very accessible to Christian teaching. Many thousands have been baptized both in the south, where the work of the Indian Bishop of Dornakal is well known, and also in the north, where the chief numerical additions to the Church have been from this class.

Page 11

Beyond the Pir Panjal by Ernest F. Neve

Ernest Frederic Neve [1861-1946], Beyond the Pir Panjal. Life and Missionary Enterprise in Kashmir

Dr Ernest Neve “…joined his brother, Arthur Neve, MD (1858-1919), at Srinagar, Kashmir in 1886, working at the Church Missionary Society’s Hospital, to which he eventually became consulting surgeon in 1923. While working in India he won the Gunning-Lister prize from Edinburgh University in 1889. In 1892 he founded the Kashmir Government Leper Asylum and was for many years its honorary superintendent. Neve was an excellent administrator and a general surgeon who accomplished a great deal of sound work, while living as a devout Christian in a predominantly Muslim country.” [Plarr’s Lives of the Fellows]

My thanks to the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for maing this public domain itle available for digitisation.

Ernest Frederic Neve [1861-1946], Beyond the Pir Panjal. Life and Missionary Enterprise in Kashmir. London: Church Missionary Society, 1914. Hbk. pp.178. View in PDF format pdf [This material is in the Public Domain]

Contents

  • Preface
  1. The Vale of Kashmir
  2. Historical Epochs
  3. The People
  4. Srinagar
  5. The Kashmir Mission School
  6. The Kashmir Medical Mission
  7. The Mission Hospital
  8. Village Life
  9. Medical Mission Camp Work
  10. A Glimpse of Kashmiri Tibet
  11. The Upper Indus Valley
  12. Sphere of Influence of Medical Mission Work
  13. Development of Kashmir

Chapter 1: The Vale of Kashmir

Kashmir owes much of its fame to its varied phases of beauty. These are partly due to the seasons. But the different alti-tudes, with their countless slopes· and upland meadows, some with northern and others with southern aspect, con-tinually provide a simultaneous presentation of the beauties of successive seasons. In the hottest summer weather, for instance, when in the valley the temperature is over 90° F. in the shade, when the air is laden with moisture and mos-quitoes abound, a ride or drive of 30 miles and a climb of 3000 feet will take us to where the atmosphere is fresh and cool. Another two or three thousand feet of ascent will bring us to snow and to early spring flowers such as primulas and anemones. And looking down from the heights to the plain below, ‘\ith its masses of foliage dimly discernible in the midst of the heat haze, we appreciate the effect of alti-tude on climate.

Page 1

100 Years of Gospel Work Among the Telugu People of India

Eustace Blake Bromley [1882-1946], They Were Men Sent From God. A Centenary Record (1836-1936) of Gospel Work in India amonst Telugas in the Godavari Delta and neighbouring parts.

This is an account of the men and women who worked among the Telugu people of the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana between 1836 and 1936. The copy of the book kindy provided by Redcliffe College of digitisation was signed by the author. This title is in the public domain.

Eustace Blake Bromley [1882-1946], They Were Men Sent From God. A Centenary Record (1836-1936) of Gospel Work in India amonst Telugas in the Godavari Delta and neighbouring parts. Bangalore: The Scripture Literature Press, 1937. Hbk. pp.199. [Click to visit the download page]

Contents

  • Foreword
  1. Introductory
  2. Christian Contacts Prior to Missionary Occupation
  3. Preparation of the Chosen Instruments
  4. The Voyage to Madras, 1830
  5. Mr Anthony Norris Groves and India
  6. Madras in 1836
  7. In Masulipatam, 1836, 1837
  8. Settlement in Narsapur, 1837
  9. Early Struggle and Trials, 1837, 1838
  10. The Antarvedi Festival
  11. The Situation Gets More Depressing, 1838, 1839
  12. Palakol Occupied and Narsapur Reoccupied, 1839-1842
  13. Dawn at Last! 1842
  14. Proving God in Quiet Plodding, 1843-1847
  15. Andhradesa’s Debto to Christian Laymen
  16. Dowlaishweram, 1847, 1848
  17. The Godavari Delta Mission
  18. Station Work in the Early Times
  19. Converts From Caste, 1850, 1851
  20. Mr. Beer’s Systematic Itinerations
  21. Mr. Beer’s Closing Labours and Death, 1852, 1853
  22. The Situation Met With Fortitude, 1854, 1855
  23. Mr. Heelis Joins the Mission
  24. Evangelising the Hill Peoples, 1856-1858
  25. Subbareddi’s Rebellion, 1858
  26. The Gospel Borne Still Farther Afield, 1859, 1860
  27. “Which Doeth Great Things Past Finding Out”
  28. The Planting of Village Churches
  29. Mr. John Beer and the Narsapur School
  30. The Passing of Mr. Bowden
  31. Mrs. Bowden’s Home Call and Family Succession
  32. The Macraes and Amalapuram Field
  33. The Rounding Off of Our Story
  • Index

Foreword

The one thousand mile train journey from Madras to Calcutta skirting the Bay of Bengal is full of interest, revealing as it does the real Hindu India. In contrast to the West Coast, signs of Mohammedans, Portuguese and Parsees arc rare. Palm trees, ghauts, temples, tanks, rice-fields, sacred rivers and thatched roof villages are the predominant features of the landscape. Beside these things of immemorial antiquity the modern gifts of India’s best friend, are not incongruous and need no apology; railways, canals, roads, bridges and dams, holding in check the forces of famine and flood.

Leaving Madras by die night mail one is usually awakened before dawn by the noisy passage of the train over the many spans of the Kistna Bridge, nearly three hundred miles northwaird. One hundred: miles farther north-east is the great River Godavari. Roughly between these two rivers and in the neighbourhood of their deltas is the area known to Christians all over the world as the Godavari Mission Field.

Page i.

History of Protestant Missions in India from 1706 to 1881

Matthew Atmore Sherring [1826-1880] & Edward Storrow [1818-1907], The History of Protestant Missions in India from their Commencement in 1706 to 1881This would appear to be a very significant work for those interested in early missionary work in India. It covers all of the major mission agencies involved from 1706 to 1881 and summaries the progress that had been made by the end of that period.

My thanks the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for providing a copy of this book for digitisation. The title is in the public domain.

Matthew Atmore Sherring [1826-1880] & Edward Storrow [1818-1907], The History of Protestant Missions in India from their Commencement in 1706 to 1881. London: Religious Tract Society, 1884. Hbk. pp.463. [Click to visit the download page]

Contents

  • Preface
  1. Protestant Missions in India During the Eighteenth Century
  2. Missions in Calcutta and its Vicinity
  3. Missions in Bengal, Excluding Calcutta and its Vicinity
  4. Missions Among the Kols and Santals
  5. Missions in the North0-Western Provinces, Oudh, and Rohilkhand
  6. Missions in the Punjab
  7. Missions in Central India, including Rajpootana, Holkar’s Country,the Central Provinces, the BErars, and the Nizam’s Dominions
  8. Missions in the City and Presidency of Bambay
  9. Missions of Basle Evangelical Society in the Southern Marathi Country, Canara, and Malabar
  10. Missions in Bellary and the Mysore
  11. Missions of the Church Missionary Society in North Travancore and Cochin
  12. Missions of the London Missionary Society in South Travancore
  13. Missions of the Church Missionary Society, and of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, in the Province of Tinnevelly
  14. Missions in the Province of Madura, of the American Board of Commisioners for Foreign Missions, and of the Society for the Propagation in Foreign Parts
  15. Missions in Tanjore, Trichinopoly, Coimbatore, and the Neelgiris
  16. Missions in the Provinces of Arcot and Salem
  17. Missions in the City of Madras an its Vicinity, including the Province of Chingleput
  18. Missions in the Provinces of Cuddapah, Kurnool, and Nellore
  19. Missions in the Kistna abd Godavery Districts, and in Vizagapatam and Ganjam
  20. Summary of the Agencies and Results of Protestant Missions in India
  • Appendix A
  • Appendix B
  • Index

Preface

The aim of this work is to show historically what Protestant Missions have accomplished in India since their commencement in the beginning of the last century. In pursuance of this object, I have collected together all the important events of these Missions, and have presented them in a succinct and consecutive narrative, thus striving to give a complete view, as in a panorama, of their operations and achievements. Notwithstanding the numerous reports which have been £or many years issued by missionaries concerning their respective fields of labour, it has hitherto been well-nigh impossible to gain an adequate and distinct conception of the wonderful work which has been accomplished in the evangelization of the people of India. While leaving matters of unnecessary detail, I have endeavoured to furnish an outline of the various methods, plans, and projects which have been pursued in the formation and growth of the Indian Protestant Church, sufficiently minute to be correct, and yet so compacted together and interwoven as to suffer neither in unity nor comprehensiveness….

Twelve Mighty Missionaries by Esthme Ethelind Enock [1874-1947]

Esthme Ethelind Enock [1874-1947], Twelve Mighty MissionariesEsthme Enock’s biographical sketches of 12 famous missionaries has just entered the public domain. This copy was kindly provided by Book Aid for digitisation.

In the table of contents below I have linked to the bibligraphy pages on Missiology.org.uk, where you will find further material on each missionary.

Esthme Ethelind Enock [1874-1947], Twelve Mighty Missionaries. London: Pickering & Inglis, Ltd., 1936. Hbk. pp.95. [Click to visit the download page]

Contents

  1. Pastor Hsi, China
  2. James Chalmers, New Guinea
  3. Alexander Mackay, Uganda
  4. Anthony Norris Groves, India
  5. Alexander Duff, India
  6. John Williams, Erromanga
  7. Samuel Marsden, Maoriland
  8. Samuel Pollard, China
  9. Hudson Taylor, China
  10. C.T. Studd, Central Africa
  11. Dan Crawford, Central Africa
  12. Dr Richard Williams, Tierra Del Fuego

Chapter 1. Pastor Hsi, China

The exact date of Pastor Hsi’s birthday does not seem to be recorded, but he was born probably in the Autumn of 1836. Till he was seven years old the little Hsi lived the usual free life of the son of a Chinese scholar, and was encouraged in every way to be overbearing and self-willed. Then he was sent to school, a school where a shrine of Confucius occupied the place of honour. Here the boy begins the studies which, it is hoped, will make him a “Princely Man.”

But, favourable though circumstances are, they do not satisfy the heart of this boy. At the early age of eight years, as he wandered through the incense-filled Temple and gazed at the hideous idols and vivid representations of punishments and terrors beyond the grave, he would ask himself, what was the use of living. “Men find no good, and in the end—?” he said to himself….