First 100 Years of Protestant Missions in Japan

Dorothy Pape, Captives of the Mighty. Christ and the Japanese Enigma

Protestant Christianity did not reach Japan until 1859, and during these 100 years the progress of the church has been comparatively slow. These are even now only about a quarter of a million converts in a population of over 90 million. This book seeks to explain many of the peculiar difficulties created by a unique and mystifying culture, which face the missionary and Japanese Christian there. It is written out of a burning desire to further the cause of Christ in a nation which is of the greatest strategic importance in the Far East and which aspires to be the bridge between nations of the East and the West.

To divide this book into two parts is logical. One part deals with the general culture and religious background of Japan, while the second tells the story of the outworking of the Christian faith in the lives of the Japanese. All readers will not necessarily want to commence with the first half; some readers may prefer to read the second half first.

From the dust jacket.

This title is copyright OMF International UK and is reproduced here by permission. You can download this book for free educational purposes. It must not be reublished for profir without explicit written permission from the copyright holder. My thanks to Book Aid for providing a copy of this book for digitisation.

Dorothy Pape, Captives of the Mighty. Christ and the Japanese Enigma. London: China Inland Mission, 1959. Hbk. pp.303. [Click to visit the download page]



Part I: The Enviroment – Cultural Background

1. A People Unveiled
2. The Imprisoning Web
3. The Spirit of Japan (1) Its Origin
4. The Spirit of Japan (2) Its Modrn Guise
5. Other Gods of Shinto
6. Pale Moonlight of Buddhism
7. A Pseudo Salvation-ny-Faith
8. The Sense of Sin
9. The Fer of Death
10. The Japanese Language – The Art of Concealing Thought
11. A Blunted Sword
12. Black Lily of Resentment
13. Meeting of East and West

Part II. The Preaching of Release

14. With Long Patience
15. Tent Evangelism
16. The Northern Island
17. North Glory Church
18. Hidaka Coast
19. Samani – By-path Meadow
20. Aomori – The Gospel in the Capital
21. In Cities Old and New
22. In Quiet Country Towns
23. Thirst for Knowledge
24. Bruised Reeds
25. Hope For the Future


Fires at the Foot of Fish-Tail by Patricia Hepworth

Machhapuchhare, view from Tadapani source Wikipedia
Machapuchhare, viewed from Tadapani. Source Wikipedia

The “fires” in the title of this book are Nepali Christian workers who sought to bring the gospel to their fellow countrymen and women. “Fish-Tail” is the magnificent Mount Machapuchare which dominates the sky-line of the city of Pokhara in Central Nepal. This little book tells the story of some of these fire brands. It was published by the Nepal Evangelistic Band in 1959 and reproduced here by kind permission of the International Nepal Fellowship. You are free to use this PDF for free educational purposes, but not to sell it for profit without written permission from the copyright holder.

Patricia Hepworth [d.1967], Fires at the Foot of Fish-TailPatricia Hepworth [d.1967], Fires at the Foot of Fish-Tail. Teignmouth: Nepal Evangelistic Band, [1959]. Pbk. pp.46. [Click to visit the download page]


  • Foreword
  1. “Fires” at the Foot of Fish-Tail
  2. Pastor David and Premi
  3. Philip and Paili
  4. Daud and Soni
  5. Buddhi Sagar and Putuli
  6. Noah nad Hannah
  7. Magdelene
  8. Simon
  9. Prem Masih
  10. Yacub and Rebecca
  11. Priscilla
  12. Priti
  13. Epilogue


There are expositors who teach that the seven Letters to the Churches in Revelation 2 and 3 are descriptive of the seven epochs in history which must be completed before the Return of the Lord. Most of them have made comparisons which suggest that today we are in the final·epoch descriptive of the Laodicean Church. Yet surely the Philadelphian experience of the open and shut door is incredibly interpretative of our generation. The door is closed in China; it is almost closed in other territories where permission for continuing work begun many years ago is ungraciously given, and then chiefly for educational or medical reasons. It would seem that to-day doors that were once wide open are certainly closing. It is equally true that doors that have been fastened against the Christian Missionary for centuries are now beginning to open. Since there are no chance happenings in sovereign grace it must be in the Will of God that Nepal has opened its doors, and therefore the following contribution by one of the pioneer missionaries, one of the first to pass through the open door, is not only of interest, but of great value….

Biography of Ion Keith-Falconer Missionary to Arabia

Ion Keith-Falconer Missionary to Arabia
Ion Keith-Falconer Missionary to Arabia. Frontipiece

Ion Grant Neville Keith-Falconer [1856-1887] was Professor of Semitic Languages at Cambridge University.

The remarkable life of the third son of the Earl of Kintore was once familiar to many Christians, for his academic and cycle-racing prowess as well as his love of the arabs were outstanding. In 1881 whilst in Assiut in Egypt to learn colloquial Arabic, Keith-Falconer observed the work of a Presbyterian missionary, Dr Hogg. Influence, too, by discussions with General [Felix T.] Haig, and by General Gordon Gordon (of Khartoum) Keith-Falconer heard God’s call to take the Gospel to the Arabs of South Arabia, gaining access by the British Colony of Aden. In 1885 he made a four month visit to assess the situation, concluding that there was much scope for medical and educational work. He chose to make Shaykh’Uthman, twelve miles inland from Steamer Point, Aden, the base for such work which would aim to reach into the interior of the country.

Shirley A. Fraser,  In the Footsteps of Ion Keith-Falconer. A brief overview of the history of the Christian Mission to South Arabia. 1998. p.2. [Brackets mine]

Although he died on malaria within six months of arriving to establish the mission in 1887… “his vision and talents inspired Samuel Zwemer and Zwemer’s brother, Peter, and Scottish and Danish recruits who took up his labors”. [Kenneth Cragg, “Keith-Falconer, Ion G(rant) N(eville),” Biographical Dictionary of Christian Missions, p.356.]

I am grateful to one of Theology on the Web’s supporters for providing a copy of this book for digitisation. This title is in the public domain.

Robert Sinker [1838-1913], Memorials of the Hon. Ion Keith-Falconer. Late Lord Almoner’s Professor of Arabic in the University of Cambridge, and Missionary to the Mohammedans of Southern Arabia. Deighton, Bell & Co. / London: George Bell & Sons, 1903. Hbk. pp.258. [Click to visit the download page]


  • Preface to the First Edition
  1. Introduction
  2. Home, Childhood, School
  3. Student Life at Cambridge
  4. Evangelistic Work: Barnwell and Mile End
  5. Leipzig
  6. Assiout: Home
  7. Cambridge: Marriage: Kelilah
  8. Aden
  9. Professorship of Arabic
  10. Shaikh Othman
  11. Conclusion
  • L’Envoi

Remarkable Story of Dr Valerie Inchley, OBE and her work in Nepal

On Call – The Running Doctor

Dr Valerie Inchley, OBE
Dr Valerie Inchley, OBE. Credit: Onwards and Upwards Publishers

In 1996 Dr Valerie M. Inchley, known in Nepal as ‘the running doctor’, was awarded an OBE for ‘services to the British community and health care in Nepal’. Her 43-year ministry as a medical missionary and international Bible teacher is described with humour and humility in her autobiography, On Call.

The growth of the Nepali church is a modern mission miracle. There were approximately 1,000 Christian when Val arrived in 1970; today there are over 1,000,000. Until 1990 it was costly for a Nepali to be baptised – they could go to jail or be disinherited – but this gave the church strength and spiritual depth. Proselytism was also punishable by imprisonment, but Val realised that “converting” someone is different from ‘living a life that attracts people to Jesus, telling them about him, and offering to pray for them when they are in need’.

Aged 26, with limited language skills and no salary, she travelled to Pokhara to serve in the International Nepal Fellowship (INF) as a doctor. Her book describes the challenges she faced – cultural, religious and often language misunderstandings (such as the man who thought he must stand in the river each day to take his tablets ‘in water’!) Cases she treated include ‘catastrophic haemorrhages after childbirth; burnt and charred babies; men with bellies so swollen from bowel blockages that they looked like pregnant women’.

Nepali Family by their house
A Nepali Family by their house. Credit: Rob Bradshaw

However, Val’s commitment to the language and people meant that she was soon reading Scripture and leading prayer meetings in Nepali. She also found that ‘the possibility that there might be something better [than karma’s fatalism] made the positive teaching of Christianity particularly attractive, especially to low castes and “lepers”, many of whom gained hope and were radically transformed by Jesus.’

Pokhara, Nepal
Pokhara, Nepal. Credit: Rob Bradshaw

In the mid-70s the government decided that Pokhara did not need two hospitals, so INF began to concentrate on tuberculosis and leprosy work. Val became the Regional Leprosy Officer in Ghorahi, developing the clinic there and supervising surveys in several Mid-Western districts.  Nepalis called her the ‘running doctor’ because of her unbreakable, but un-Eastern, habit of doing everything “at the double”. In one town she treated 186 patients, visited officials, lectured at the college and taught the hospital staff – all in 5 days!

Dr Inchley and the Queen of Nepal
Dr Val Inchley and the Queen of Nepal. Credit: Onwards and Upwards Publishers

In 1979 Val returned to Pokhara. The closed INF hospital had become a community health and tuberculosis centre, where she worked as Medical Coordinator until 1983. Then she served at the government hospital, helping to equip its 150-bed extension whilst working in the obstetrics and gynaecology department. She even escorted the Queen of Nepal around the new buildings during a royal visit.

Having heard, in 1987 that her mother had been taken in hospital, she returned to the UK. During that time she attended a “Walk Thru the Bible” (WTB) seminar – an experience which would shape her future ministry. The following year, when she returned to Nepal, she first served as Acting Personnel Secretary, even becoming Acting Director for three weeks, and then as Health Projects Director for 7 years. With permission, she translated the WTB material into Nepali and developed it further, calling the new course “Bible Yatra”. She initially taught this within her ladies’ fellowship. Then Nepal’s revolutiom of 1990 enabled expatriates to offer greater support to the Nepali church, so she began to give seminars in several churches and Bible training centres.

In 1990 she became INF’s Medical Director, and also later the Director of their Health Services Partnership. Then in late 1997 she sensed God calling her to ‘move outside the security of a mission visa’. She resigned and explored the option of staying in Nepal with a campus visa to study Nepali, whilst further developing Bible Yatra. This proved timely; in 1998/9 the government clamped down on “extra-curricular” activities and some INF expatriates were expelled.

Val ompleted the handbook for the Bible Yatra course, whilst obtaining a Diploma of Higher Education in Theology, and then went on to research thousands of Nepali proverbs, gaining a Master’s degree in “Global Issues in Contemporary Mission”. Later, as part of the great poet Devkota Centenary Celebration she was awarded for her ‘continuous dedication to promoting Nepali literature and… tireless efforts in taking Nepali language to the international area.

For 13 years Val survived on study, research and business visas, until she had fully handed over the Bible Yatra ministry and it was officially registered as a Nepali NGO. She and the teachers she trained had taught the course at 1,000 seminars to over 20,000 students, including in the Nepali diaspora. Her faithful work continues to support the Nepali church and Nepalis in the diaspora today.

This article was reproduced from Together Magazine issue 30 (Mar/Apr 2018): 28. It is appears here by permission of Editor of Together Magazine and the DIrector of Onwards and Upwards Publishers. On Call. The Unexpurgated story of the RUNNING DOCTOR is published by Onwards and Upwards Publishers. ISBN-13: 9781911086949.

History of the Bible Churchmen’s Missionary Society – First 25 years

Bible Churchmen's Society College in Bristol

The history of the Bible Churchmen’s Missionary Society, now Crosslinks, from 1922-1947. The book includes several photographs and maps showing the locations of the mission stations in India, Iran, Ethiopia, Uganda, Canada, Morocco and Burma. Reproduced by kind permission of the copyright holder Crosslinks. This PDF can be used for free educational purposes, but not sold for profit without written permission from the copyright holder.

W.S. Hooton & J. Stafford Wright, The First Twenty-Five Years of the Bible Churchmen’s Missionary Society (1922-47). London: Bible Churchmen;s Missionary Society, 1947. Hbk. pp.242. [Click to visit the download page]


  • Foreword, by the Rev. Daniel H.C. Bartlett, M.A., D.D

    Authors’ Preface

  1. A New Church Society
  2. Early Days and Small Beginnings
  3. Consolidation and Extension
  4. The Colleges
  5. Another Contindent Entered
  6. Stubborn Strongholds of Antichrist
  7. The Most Troubled Land
  8. Thrusting Outward in the Burma Field
  9. Gatehring up the Threads
  10. The Falling Star of Ethiopia
  11. China’s Two Suns
  12. Rays in India’s Darkness
  13. Bright Sky in Burma
  14. A Constellation and Single Stars
  15. The Young Crescent
  16. The Lights of Home
  17. Remote from the Battle Fronts
  18. Threatened, but not Touched
  19. Disorganization in Africa
  20. China Still in the Throes
  21. “A People Scattered and Peeled”
  22. Testing Times at Home
  23. Building Waste Places
  • Epilogue, by the Rev A.T. Houghton
  • Appendices
  • Index


This history has been entrusted· to one who did not take part in those inner councils which germinated and eventually directed the life of B.C.M.S., but who watched with sympathetic interest from an independent position the founding of a new Society based upon the wholehearted acceptance of the trustworthiness of the Word of God written and the Word of God Incarnate.

And the object of this history is simply to give Glory to God without Whose enablement and guidance the whole effort would have expired ignominiously. But Divine Grace manifested in the gift of a practical Faith engendered a “don’t-careism” concerning the things of Time, so necessary to the launching of a new witness to Truth amidst almost universal opposition….

Nepal and the Gospel of God by Jonathan Lindell

Jonathan Lindell, Nepal and Gospel of GodThe rate of church growth in Nepal is one of the fastest in the world. This growth is not primarily due to the presence of foreign missionary agencies that have been present in the country since the 1950s. Rather it has been through the evangelistic efforts of the Nepali people themselves, reaching out despite the risk of imprisonment for proselytising. This book tells the story of the church in Nepal up to 1979.

I had the privilege of serving in Nepal in 1988/89 and received a copy of this book as part of my orientation course. It appears on-line thanks to the kind permission of the United Mission to Nepal.

Jonathan Lindell, Nepal and Gospel of God. New Dehli: United Mission to Nepal, 1979. Hbk. pp.279. [Click to visit the download page.]


  1. Men in Beards, Hoods and Robes
  2. Language, Books, Message
  3. People Who Seek, Find, Tell
  4. People Who Peach, Teach and Heal
  5. End of the Ranas, Revolution, New Nepal
  6. Bird Trips, The Dikshit Letter, A New Mission
  7. Riding the Tide into Nepal
  8. Into the Hilly Regions
  9. Development Is A Multi-Faceted Process
  10. Insode the United Mission
  11. Nepal and the Gospel of God
  • Bibliography of Source Materials
  • Appendix I – Member Bodies of The United Mission
  • Appendix II – The General Agreement
  • Appendix III – Profile of U M N Personnel
  • Appendix IV – Projects of the United Mission
  • Source Materials


The Wikipedia page on the United Mission to Nepal references this book. Could someone add this link please?

From the dustjacket

The history of Christian Missions will probably record that the United Mission to Nepal is unique among missionary organizations on any continent. It cams to birth in the movement only in 1954, making it now 25 years old. On this anniversary the Directors considered it appropriate to put into writing an account of the country where the Mission has enjoyed these years and also the story of Christian Missions as related to Nepal.

The United Mission is only a small part of a much larger whole. Its roots go back into history in many directions and its branches touch and its missionary movement in southern Asia. This book attempts to gather up these many parts – Capuchin Fathers, Bible Translators, Darjeeling Christians, Missions on the border, evangelists and believers – to fit them together and to see the larger whole.

Special attention is then given to this unusual Mission – the nature of its ‘united-ness’ and the content of its ‘mission’, Within it are more than thirty mission societies from four continents which hae joined together to work as one body of Christians ‘in the Name and Spirit of Jesus Christ’. Here is the account of those diverse nationalities, the denominations from which they come, theuir human frailties, the glue which hold them together and the prevailing faith which sends them with joy into witness and service.

Nepal is unique among countries as the United Mission is among mission organizations. It has been a little-known Hindu Kingdom, closed to the outside world and shut up in its medievalism. Recently it threw open its windows and doors, joined the world family of nations and is moving vigorously in the current of the times to build a New Nepal. It is within this society and its environment, related to Agreements signed with His Majesty’s Government of Nepal, that the United Mission has found it manner of life and its place of work.

A special feature of the book in the way it leads the reader around to the Nepal side, to join the Nepalese in looking down from their mountain strongholds upon colonial movements and the coming of missions, to think their thoughts and understand their actions. Then to come around and view the drame of life in Nepal from the eyes of the Christian movement. This book contains two parts and relates them to each other, what it calls “Nepal” and the “Gospel of God”.

History of the Church Missionary Society by Eugene Stock – 4 Vols

Eugene Stock [1836-1928], The History of the Church Missionary Society. Its Environment, Its Men and Its Work, 4 Vols. Eugene Stock’s comprehensive History of the Church Missionary Society runs to 2,740 pages and 4 Volumes. My thanks to the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for providing a set of these volumes to scan. These titles are in the pubic domain.

Eugene Stock [1836-1928], The History of the Church Missionary Society. Its Environment, Its Men and Its Work, 4 Vols. London: Church Missionary Society, 1899-1916. Hbk. pp.504 + 659 + 912 + 665. [Click to visit the download page for this set]

Table of Contents, Volumes 1-3

  • Preface
  • Author’s Preface
  • Outline of the Work
  1. The Great Commission
  2. Missions Before the Reformation
  3. Missions After the Reformation
  4. The Eighteenth Century and the Evangelical Revival
  5. Africa and the East – Waiting
  6. The Missionary Awakening
  7. The New Society and its Early Struggles
  8. The First Missionaries
  9. Africa and India: Struggle and Victory
  10. Forward Steps
  11. Rousing the Country: The Associations
  12. C.M.S. and Other Societies
  13. Sierra Leone: The White Man’s Grave; The Black Man’s Life
  14. The Finished Course
  15. India: Entering the Opened Door
  16. Insular Missions: New Zealand, Ceylon, West India, Malta
  17. The Eastern Churches: Reports for their Revival
  18. The Outlook After Twenty-Five Years
  19. The Personnel of the Period
  20. The Environment of the Period
  21. India: Changes and Development
  22. India: Progress of the Missions
  23. The Negro on Both SIdes the Atlantic, Enslaved and Free
  24. Greek, Copt, Abyssinian, Zulu, Maori, Australian, Cree
  25. Henry Venn; And Survey of Men and Things
  26. The Society and the Church
  27. The Colonial and Missionary Episcopate
  28. New Zealand: The Bishop, the Colony, and the Mission
  29. New Enterprises in Africa: Niger Expedition, Yoruba Mission East Coast
  30. The Opening of China
  31. The Society’s Finances
  32. The Jubilee
  33. The Environment: Church Developments – Anglican
  34. The Environment: Church Developments – Evangelical
  35. The Society at Home
  36. Some Recruits from the Universities
  37. Islington College and its Men
  38. Church Organization: The Church of New Zealand
  39. West Africa: Three Missions and Three Bishops
  40. East Africa: The Missionaries and the Explorers
  41. Jerusalem and Constantinople: Jew, Turk, Christian
  42. India Under Dalhouse; and the Missions in the North
  43. India: The Missions in the South
  44. India: The Punjab – For England and For Christ
  45. India: The Mutiny – Its Victims and its Lessons
  46. India: The Great Controversy – Neutrality or Christianity?
  47. India: Missions After the Mutiny
  48. Ceylon’s Isle
  49. China: In Time of War and Tumults
  50. The Great Lone Land
  51. An Anxious Period: In the Society, and in the Church
  52. The Period: More Church Developments
  53. Salisbury Square
  54. Candidates of the Period
  55. The Native Churches: Self-supporting, Self-governing, Self-extending
  56. Ebb-Tide in Africa
  57. The Niger and its Black Bishop
  58. The Islands: Mauritius and Madagascar
  59. India: Rulers and Bishops of the Period
  60. India: Babus, Brahmos, Borderers
  61. India: Agencies Evangelistic and Pastoral
  62. India: Death and Life
  63. India: A Flag for Christ in the Punjab
  64. China: New Mission and Old
  65. The Land of the Rising Sun
  66. Lands of the Utmost West: Manitoba; Metlakahtla
  67. New Zealand: War, Apostasy, Fidelity
  68. Henry Venn’s Latter Days
  69. The Environment: Church Movements
  70. The Environment: Evangelistic and Spiritual Movements
  71. The Society: Missions, Men, Money
  72. The Society: Home Influence and Organization
  73. Africa: The Flowing Tide Again: Ilala – and After
  74. Uganda: The Call and the Response
  75. The Crescent and the Cross: Missions in Mohammedan Lands
  76. India: Dioceses of Calcutta and Bombay
  77. India: Diocese of Lahore
  78. India: Diocese of Madras
  79. India: The Hill Tribes
  80. India and Ceylon: The Bishops and the Society
  81. The Far East: Advance in China and Japan
  82. The Far West: The Church among the Red Indians
  83. The Epoch of 1880-82
  84. The Environment: Ecclesiastical, Controversial, Spiritual
  85. The Society A New Era of Progress
  86. Three Memorable Years. 1885, 1886, 1887
  87. Controversies Within and Attack from Without
  88. Recruits of the Period: Men and Women
  89. High Hopes and Sore Sorrows: West Africa and the Niger
  90. High Hopes and Sore Sorrows: East Africa and Uganda
  91. British East India; The Company, The Government, and the Missions
  92. India: The Men and their Work
  93. India: Some Features, Episodes, Incidents, and Controversies of the Period
  94. Lands of Islam: Egypt, Palestine, Arabia, Persia
  95. In the Indian and Southern Oceans: Ceylon, Mauritius, New Zealand
  96. China: Onward, Inward, – and Upward
  97. Japan: The Nation, the Mission, the Church
  98. The Red Indian Missions: Patterns of Zeal and Triumphs of Grace
  99. Missions at Congresses and Conferences
  100. Seven Years of the Policy of Faith
  101. The Church, the Society and the Cause
  102. The Society: Candidates, Controbutions, and the Three Years’ Enterprise
  103. The Four Years Abroad: Africa
  104. The Four Years Abroad: Asia
  105. In Memoriam
  106. Repice, Circumspice, Prospice

Church Missionary Society Centenary Volume 1799-1899

Anonymous, The Centenary Volume of the Church Missionary Society For Africa and the East, 1799-1899The Centenary Volume of the Church Missionary Society covers the years 1799-1899. It lists the many services of commemoration, both in the UK and overseas. My thanks to the Redcliffe College for providing a copy for digitisation. This title is in the public domain.

Anonymous, The Centenary Volume of the Church Missionary Society For Africa and the East, 1799-1899. London: Church Missionary Society, 1902. Hbk. pp,992. [Click to visit the download page]


  • Introductory Historical Sketch

Part I: Before the Commoration

  • The Three Years’ Enterprise
    The Second Jubilee
    The Three Years’ Enterprise in the Mission Field

Part II: The Centenary Commemoration – The Commemoration in London

  1. Day for Prayer and Thanksgiving. Monday April 10
  2. Day for Review of C.M.S. Missions, Tuesday, April 11.
  3. The Centenary Day, Wednesday, April 12
  4. Day For Review of Other Misisons, Thursday, April 13
  5. Day For Looking Forward, Friday, 14
  • The Commemoration in the Provinces
  • The Commemoration in Scotland and Ireland
  • The Commemoration in the Colonies
  • The Commemoration in the Mission Field

Part III: Centenary Funds

Part IV: List of Officers, Statistics, &c.

Introductory Historical Sketch

During the eighteenth century next to nothing was done by British Christians to spread the knowledge of the Gospel among the Pagan, Heathen, and Mohammedan nations of the world. Two Societies, both identified with the Church of England, were practically the only agencies which aimed at discharging this duty, and the aim of both these was limited within narrow boundaries. The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, formed in 1698, aimed at discharging the object proclaimed in its title chiefly by providing schools and – literature, and by subsidizing other institutions. It did not propose to employ living agents. Nevertheless, for well-nigh a century in God’s good Providence, it was led to support and, indeed, virtually to direct a Mission among the Tamils of South India, which had been instituted by Frederick IV., King of Denmark, and which was manned by Lutheran missionaries, some of them, such as Ziegenbalg and Schwartz….

Samuel Zwemer on Islam: A Challenge to Faith

Samuel M. Zwemer [1867-1952], Islam. A Challenge to FaithSamuel Marinus Zwemer [1867-1952], known as the Apostle to Islam, was “one of the most celebrated Protestant missionaries of the twentieth century”. [Biographical Dictionary of Christian Mission, p.763]

His book on Islam, reproduced here, remains as relevant today as when it was written. This title is in the public domain.

Samuel M. Zwemer [1867-1952], Islam. A Challenge to Faith. Studies on the Mohammedan Religion and the Needs and Opportunities of the Mohammedan World from the Standpoint of Christian Missions. New York: Student Volunteer Movement For Foreign Missions, 1907. Hbk. pp.295. [Click to visit the main download page]


  • Preface
  1. The Origin and Sources of Islam
  2. Mohammad, The Prophet is Islam
  3. The Spread of Islam
  4. The Faith of Islam
  5. The Practice of Islam
  6. The Ethics of Islam
  7. Division, Disintegration, and Reform
  8. The Present Condition of the Moslem World
  9. Missions to Moslems
  10. Methods and Results
  11. The Problem and the Peril
  12. A Challenge to Faith
  • Appendices
  • Index


The churches of Christendom are at last awaking to the fact that one of the great unsolved missionary problems of the Twentieth Century is the evangelization of the Mohammedan world. The Cairo Conference reports, the Haystack Centennial volume, the organization of new missionary societies for work among Moslems, and the recent statements concerning the Moslem peril in West Africa and the Soudan, all carry this message to the churches and the student-world of Christendom. The Cairo Conference appeal, voicing the opinion of many leading missionaries from every Moslem land, was primarily a call for trained men from the universities and professional schools. And this appeal, in the words of Mr. John R. Mott, “has laid upon students as never before the responsibility of reaching the Mohammedan world.”

But if we are to reach that world with the gospel of Christ we must first know of it and know it…

Christianity and the Asian Revolution

Rajah B. Manikam, editor. Christianity and the Asian RevolutionThis is a collection of articles about the “Asian Revolution”, that is, the political, economic, social and ideological changes that took place in East Asia in the 1930s, 40s and 50s.

This book is reproduced here by kind permission of the copyright holder, the World Council of Churches. My thanks to the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide for providing a copy for scanning.

Rajah B. Manikam, editor. Christianity and the Asian Revolution. India: The Joint East Asia Secretariat of the International Missionary Council and the World Council of Churches., 1954. Hbk. pp.293. [Click to visit download page]


  • Preface
  • Area and Population Chart

Section I: The Social Revolution in East Asia

  1. What is the Asian Revolution?
  2. The Political Situation
  3. Towards a Nw Economic Order
  4. The Changing Social Scene
  5. Contending Ideologies
  6. Christian Concern for the Asian Revolution

Section II: Resurgent Religions

  1. Patterns of Religious Resurgence in East Asia
  2. Resurgent Hinduism
  3. Buddhism on the March
  4. Islam Today
  5. New Religions in East Asia
  6. The Christian Approach to Non-Christian Religions

Section III: The Church in East Asia

  1. The Churches in the Asian Context
  2. The Churches at Work
  3. The Unfinished Task

Section III: The Church in East Asia

  1. Asian Churchmen Speak


The proposal to write this book was first discussed at the Ecumenical Study Conference for East Asia, held at Lucknow, India, in December 1952. The plan approved by the Conference was to issue an interpretative volume on “Christianity and the Asian Revolution” in preparation for the Second Assembly of the World Council of Churches. It was agreed that Christians in Asia should contribute articles to this volume, and, that it should be edited by the undersigned in his capacity as the Joint Secretary for East Asia of the International Missionary Council and the World Council of Churches.

In using the term ‘Asian Revolution’, we have had in mind much more than the political changes in East Asia during the past twenty-five years. Revolutionary developments have affected every aspect of Asian society. Political, economic, social and ideological changes are discussed in the first section of the book….